Maternal Serum Uric Acid Levels and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH
Authors: Biradar, Aruna Mallangouda; Kori, Shreedevi Somshekar; Mathapati, Sangamesh S.; Mudanur, Subhash R.; Patil, Neelamma G.; Pujeri, Shivakumar S.
Introduction: Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) are the major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. The maximum burden of maternal mortality and morbidity is due to HDP and its related complications which is further followed by obstetric haemorrhage. pre-existing medical diseases. infections and abortions. Aim: To study the association between the serum uric acid level in hypertensive pregnant women and their association with maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective observational study conducted at BLDE (Deemed to be) University, Shri BM Patil Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Vijayapura, Karnataka, India from January to June 2019. A total of 165 pregnant women with HDP were included (44 (27%) had Gestational Hypertension (GH); 86 (52%), Pre-eclampsia (PE) and 35 (21%) eclampsia) in each group in the study and they were subjected for obstetric history, examination and laboratory evaluation. The laboratory evaluation included complete blood count, liver function test, renal function test, serum uric acid level and urine albumin, sugars and microscopy. The maternal and foetal outcomes were measured, which included mode of delivery, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admission, neonatal outcomes in terms of preterm or term delivery, intrauterine death, fresh still born, neonatal deaths. Results: A total of 165 cases with HDP were enrolled in the study. Mean serum uric acid level in GH, PE and eclampsia group was 5.13 +/- 1.32, 5.34 +/- 1.4, 6.05 +/- 1.67, respectively. A total of 118 participants presented at term and 47 were preterm (11 in GH, 20 in PE and 16 in eclampsia group). About 103 (62.42%) had vaginal delivery and 62 (31.51%) underwent caesarean section (14 in GH, 28 in PE and 20 in eclampsia group). All the perinatal deaths occurred were in women with PE (n=5) and eclampsia (n=2) and was not statistically analysed. Conclusion: Present study shows that increased levels of maternal serum uric acid levels were associated with PE and eclampsia compared to GH patients and were associated with adverse foetal outcomes and increase in the instrumental and operative interventions.
Comparison of energy use efficiency of greenhouse and indoor plant factory system
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE
Authors: Zhang, Ying; Kacira, M.
Energy use efficiency in greenhouse and indoor plant factory system is greatly affected by outdoor climates, structure properties, operating conditions and product types. Energy use efficiency for two greenhouse cases and two indoor plant factory cases were compared in simulation with annual lettuce biomass yield and energy consumption including lighting, heating, and cooling for six geographic locations with different climates (Duluth, Minnesota; Seattle, Washington; Phoenix, Arizona; Miami, Florida; Abu Dhabi, UAE; and Riyadh, KSA). The energy balance of a greenhouse was simulated including Greenhouse 1 (GH_1) with a shading curtain (50% shade percentage) deployed during high radiation seasons and Greenhouse 2 (GH_2) with a constant daily light integral level (DLI) of 15 mol m(-2) d(-1) achieved by supplemental lights and variable shading controls. In indoor plant factory model, two cases Indoor Plant Factory 1 (IPF_1) and Indoor Plant Factory 2 (IPF_2) were simulated with EnergyPlus, a building simulation program, with the DLIs of 13 mol m(-2) d(-1) and 15 mol m(-2 )d(-1) respectively. Using LED lights with high efficacy (2.5 mu mol J(-1)), indoor plant factories were determined to be superior to greenhouses in cold climates with energy use efficiency as high as 0.13 kg kWh(-1) and 0.14 kg kWh(-1) respectively in Duluth and Seattle compared to greenhouse cases with 0.10 kg kWh(-1) and 0.11 kg kWh(-1) respectively. In hot climates greenhouses are significantly more efficient than indoor plant factories, with the highest energy use efficiency of 0.35 kg kWh(-1) in Miami. Parameters of indoor plant factory systems, including heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) economizers, the number of tiers of production shelves, lettuce plant transpiration rate, and light efficacy, were evaluated for their impacts on energy usage and effectiveness for energy savings. Choosing LED lights with high efficacy was recommended to effectively reduce the electricity usage and to enhance energy use efficiency for indoor plant factories.