Use of Lactobacillus paracasei strain for zearalenone binding and metabolization
Authors: Zloch, Michal; Rogowska, Agnieszka; Pomastowski, Pawel; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica; Walczak-Skierska, Justyna; Rudnicka, Joanna; Buszewski, Boguslaw
The study investigated the zearalenone (ZEA) neutralization process as a consequence of metabolization and binding process by the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus paracasei using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to determine the nature of the binding process the kinetic and spectroscopic approach were used. Moreover, the influence of ZEA on L. paracasei metabolism was examined by the determination of the proteome profile of cells and the profile of volatile compounds (VOCs) produced by bacteria cells. For this purpose the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) techniques were used. The obtained results indicate that in the mechanism of ZEA neutralization both - metabolization/biotransformation and binding/biosorption processes are involved. Furthermore, the biotransformation of ZEA to both alpha- and beta-ZOL with a predominance of beta-ZOL by lactic acid bacteria strain was recorded. The results suggest that the tested microorganism can be used as a potential detoxification agent for grain and feed.
Regional Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study in Benin, Cameroon, Mali and Nigeria Reveals the Presence of 164 Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Foods
Authors: Ingenbleek, Luc; Sulyok, Michael; Adegboye, Abimbola; Hossou, Setondji Epiphane; Kone, Abdoulaye Zie; Oyedele, Awoyinka Dada; Kisito, Chabi Sika K. J.; Dembele, Yara Koreissi; Eyangoh, Sara; Verger, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Le Bizec, Bruno; Krska, Rudolf
In the framework of the first multi-centre Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study (SSA-TDS), 2328 commonly consumed foods were purchased, prepared as consumed and pooled into 194 composite samples of cereals, tubers, legumes, vegetables, nuts and seeds, dairy, oils, beverages and miscellaneous. Those core foods were tested for mycotoxins and other fungal, bacterial and plant secondary metabolites by liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The highest aflatoxin concentrations were quantified in peanuts, peanut oil and maize. The mean concentration of the sum of aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 (AF(tot)) in peanut samples (56.4 mu g/kg) exceeded EU (4 mu g/kg) and Codex (15 mu g/kg) standards. The AF(tot) concentration (max: 246.0 mu g/kg) was associated with seasonal and geographic patterns and comprised, on average, 80% AFB1, the most potent aflatoxin. Although ochratoxin A concentrations rarely exceeded existing Codex standards, it was detected in unregulated foods. One palm oil composite sample contained 98 different metabolites, including 35.4 mu g/kg of ochratoxin A. In total, 164 different metabolites were detected, with unspecific metabolites like asperglaucide, cyclo(L-pro-L-val), cyclo (L-pro-L-tyr), flavoglaucin, emodin and tryptophol occurring in more than 50% of composite samples. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), sterigmatocystin (STC), ochratoxin A (OTA), citrinin (CIT) and many other secondary fungal metabolites are frequent co-contaminants in staple foods, such as maize and sorghum. Populations from North Cameroon and from Benin may, therefore, suffer chronic and simultaneous exposure to AFB1, FB1, STC, OTA and CIT, which are prevalent in their diet.