Genetic and physiological regulation of folate in pak choi (Brassica rapa subsp. Chinensis) germplasm
JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BOTANY
Authors: Shohag, M. J. I.; Wei, Yanyan; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Ying; Rychlik, Michael; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe
Folates are one of the essential micronutrients for all living organisms. Due to inadequate dietary intake, folate deficiency remains prevalent in humans. Genetically diverse germplasms can potentially be used as parents in breeding programs and also for understanding the folate regulatory network. Therefore, we investigated the natural genetic diversity of folates and their physiological regulation in pak choi (Brassica rapa subsp. Chinensis) germplasm. The total folate concentration ranged from 52.7 mu g 100 gFW-1 to 166.9 mu g 100 gFW(-1), with 3.2-fold variation. The main folate vitamer was represented by 5-CH3-H(4)folate, with 4.5-fold variation. The activities of GTP cyclohydrolase I and aminodeoxy chorismate synthase, the first step of folate synthesis, were high in high folate accessions and low in low folate accessions. Analysis of the transcription levels of 11 genes associated with folate metabolism demonstrated that the difference in folate concentrations may be primarily controlled at the post-transcriptional level. A general correlation between total folate and their precursors was observed. Folate diversity and chlorophyll content were tightly regulated through the methyl cycle. The diverse genetic variation in pak choi germplasm indicated the great genetic potential to integrate breeding programs for folate biofortification and unravel the physiological basis of folate homeostasis in planta.
Bismuth-Based Mesoporous Nanoball Carrying Sorafenib for Computed Tomography Imaging and Synergetic Chemoradiotherapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
ADVANCED HEALTHCARE MATERIALS
Authors: Zhang, Guang-Cong; Liu, Jie; Yu, Xiang-Nan; Deng, Yong; Sun, Yun; Liu, Tao-Tao; Dong, Ling; Zhu, Chang-Feng; Shen, Xi-Zhong; Zhu, Ji-Min; Weng, Shu-Qiang; Li, Yuhao
Sorafenib (SOR), a multi-kinase inhibitor for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), reveals a limited therapeutic effect due to a lack of selectivity and evident drug resistance. In the present study, bismuth-based mesoporous nanomaterial (NBOF) is loaded with SOR and then coated with polyethylene glycol and folic acid conjugates (P-FA) to form an NBOF@SOR-P-FA nanocarrier system. The system achieves significantly enhanced anti-cancer efficacy by combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy. To evaluate the effect of synergistic treatment, cytotoxicity detection, Live/Dead staining, apoptotic assay, and Western blot analysis are performed. The results suggest that NBOF@SOR-P-FA significantly inhibits HCC cell proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis. Also, the NBOF@SOR-P-FA exhibits excellent biocompatibility by hemolysis and serum biochemical tests and produces a substantially enhanced contrast efficiency as compared to iohexol by computed tomography imaging. More importantly, the profound suppression of tumor growth and potentiation of apoptosis are observed in a mouse subcutaneous tumor model. Collectively, these results indicate that the bismuth-based nanotheranostic platform could enhance the therapeutic effect of sorafenib and serve as an innovative method for HCC treatment.