Elevated p70S6K phosphorylation in rat soleus muscle during the early stage of unloading: Causes and consequences
ARCHIVES OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS
Authors: Belova, Svetlana P.; Vilchinskaya, Natalia A.; Mochalova, Ekaterina P.; Mirzoev, Timur M.; Nemirovskaya, Tatiana L.; Shenkman, Boris S.
Currently, there is a lack of investigation into the initial signaling events underlying the development of disuse muscle atrophy. The study was aimed to (i) identify an assumed relationship between AMPK dephosphorylation and p70S6K hyperphosphorylation in the initial period of hindlimb unloading (HS), and (ii) assess the signaling consequences of p70S6K hyperphosphorylation following 24-h HS. For experiment 1, rats were treated with AMPK activator (AICAR) for 6?d before HS as well as during 24-h HS. For experiment 2, rats were treated with mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin during 24-h HS. The key signaling markers implicated in protein turnover were assessed using WB and RT-PCR. One-day HS resulted in a significant upregulation of MuRF-1 and MAFbx expression, increase in p70S6K (Thr389) and IRS-1 (Ser639) phosphorylation and a significant decrease in phosphorylated AMPK, AKT, FOXO3, total IRS-1 content, and HDAC5 nuclear content. AMPK and p70S6K phosphorylation did not differ from control in AICAR-treated unloaded rats. Rapamycin treatment during unloading abolished p70S6K and E3 ligases upregulation and increased HDAC5 nuclear accumulation. The results of the study suggest that mTORC-1/p70S6K signaling pathway in rat soleus muscle is activated following 24-h mechanical unloading. This activation is facilitated by a decrease in AMPK phosphorylation. Increased p70S6K activity at the initial stage of hindlimb unloading could lead to the upregulation of E3 ligases MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 via nuclear export of HDAC5.
Circulating insulin-like growth factors and Alzheimer disease A mendelian randomization study
Authors: Williams, Dylan M.; Karlsson, Ida K.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Hagg, Sara
ObjectiveTo examine whether genetically predicted variation in circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) or its binding protein, IGFBP3, are associated with risk of Alzheimer disease (AD), using a mendelian randomization study design.MethodsWe first examined disease risk by genotypes of 9 insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using published summary genome-wide association statistics from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP; n = 17,008 cases; 37,154 controls). We then assessed whether any SNP-disease results replicated in an independent sample derived from the Swedish Twin Registry (n = 984 cases; 10,304 controls).ResultsMeta-analyses of SNP-AD results did not suggest that variation in IGF1, IGFBP3, or the molar ratio of these affect AD risk. Only one SNP appeared to affect AD risk in IGAP data. This variant is located in the gene FOXO3, implicated in human longevity. In a meta-analysis of both IGAP and secondary data, the odds ratio of AD per FOXO3 risk allele was 1.04 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.08; p = 0.008).ConclusionsThese findings suggest that circulating IGF1 and IGFBP3 are not important determinants of AD risk. FOXO3 function may influence AD development via pathways that are independent of IGF signaling (i.e., pleiotropic actions).