Genetic association between the rs12252 SNP of the interferon-induced transmembrane protein gene and influenza A virus infection in the Korean population
MOLECULAR & CELLULAR TOXICOLOGY
Authors: Kim, Yong-Chan; Jeong, Min-Ju; Jeong, Byung-Hoon
Background Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is a potent host antiviral effector protein that blocks the invasion of various viruses, including the influenza A virus (IAV). The C allele of the rs12252 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) shows vulnerability to the pandemic 2009 H1N1 IAV in European and Asian populations. Objective Here, we estimated the disease susceptibility of the rs12252 SNP with the pandemic 2009 H1N1 IAV infection in the Korean population. Results We carried out direct sequencing of the IFITM3 gene and compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the rs12252 SNP of the IFITM3 gene in healthy Koreans and pandemic 2009 H1N1 IAV-infected patients. Notably, we observed that healthy individuals had a similar genotype distribution of the rs12252 SNP (P = 0.140) as patients. The dominant model and recessive model did not find a statistically significant difference in genotype distribution between healthy individuals and patients. In addition, the allele distribution of the rs12252 SNP of in healthy individuals and patients also showed a similar genetic distribution (P = 0.757). However, the genetic distribution of rs12252 SNP in merged patient group (Koreans and Chinese populations) showed significant association with susceptibility of pandemic 2009 IAV (P = 0.0393). Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this was the first evaluation of the susceptibility of the pandemic 2009 H1N1 IAV in the Korean population.
Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase-Receptor Balance: Preserving Virus Motility
TRENDS IN MICROBIOLOGY
Authors: de Vries, Erik; Du, Wenjuan; Guo, Hongbo; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) occasionally cross the species barrier and adapt to novel host species. This requires readjustment of the functional balance of the sialic add receptor-binding hemagglutinin (HA) and the receptor-destroying neuraminidase (NA) to the sialoglycan-receptor repertoire of the new host. Novel techniques have revealed mechanistic details of this HA-NA-receptor balance, emphasizing a previously underappreciated crucial role for NA in driving the motility of receptor-associated IAV particles. Motility enables virion penetration of the sialylated mucus layer as well as attachment to, and uptake into, underlying epithelial cells. As IAVs are essentially irreversibly bound in the absence of NA activity, the fine-tuning of the HA-NA-receptor balance rather than the binding avidity of IAV particles per se is an important factor in determining host species tropism.