3D Nanostructured Palladium-Functionalized Graphene-Aerogel-Supported Fe3O4 for Enhanced Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-Based Electrochemiluminescent Immunosensing of Prostate Specific Antigen
ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES
Authors: Yang, Lei; Li, Yueyuan; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Dawei; Pang, Xuehui; Wei, Qin; Du, Bin
We developed a novel Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor utilizing palladium nano particle (Pd NP)-functionalized graphene-aerogel-supported Fe3O4 (FGA-Pd) for real-sample analysis of prostate specific antigen (PSA). 3D nanostructured FGA-Pd, as a novel ECL carrier, was prepared by in situ reduction. Large amounts of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) could combine with FGA-Pd via electrostatic interaction to establish a brand-new ECL emitter (Ru@FGA-Pd) for improving ECL efficiency. The obtained Ru@FGA-Pd composite was utilized to label the secondary antibody, which generated strong ECL signals with tripropylamine (TPrA) as a coreactant. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the participation of Pd NPs endowed FGA with favorable electrocatalytic ability in the luminescence process to produce more excited state [Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)]* for realizing desirable signal amplification. In addition, the primary antibody was captured by gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-functionalized Fe2O3 nanodendrites (Au-FONDs), which possessed good electrical conductivity and favorable biocompatibility. Under optimum conditions, the fabricated sandwich-type ECL immunosensor showed a sensitive response to PSA with a low detection limit of 0.056 pg/mL (S/N = 3) and a calibration range of 0.0001-50 ng/mL. Featuring favorable selectivity, stability, and repeatability, the proposed immunosensor is expected to blaze a novel trail for the real sample detection of PSA and other biomarkers.
Functionally graded adhesive joints A review and prospects
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADHESION AND ADHESIVES
Authors: Durodola, J. F.
There is increasing demand for effective and efficient lightweight structures because of global environmental and resource sustainability concerns. Adhesive bonding has been adopted in many assembly arrangements because of its relative reduction of stress concentration in joints compared to mechanical fasteners. Functionally graded bonded joints presents even greater potentials for reduction of stress concentrations and the tailoring of stress distribution as may be desired in an adhesive layer. This capability provides opportunity for the design of high performance tailored structural assemblies. Although some encouraging analysis and experimental work have been carried out on the development of functionally graded joints, its wide application is still to be realised. This paper reviews the work that has been carried out so far on the method, in terms of analysis, fabrication, experimental testing and application. It also reflects on outstanding issues that need to be resolved in order for wider application to be feasible.