Endotoxin IgG ELISA kit (DEIABL26)

Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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Size
96T
Sample
serum, plasma, cell culture supernatants
Species Reactivity
Human, Rhesus Monkey, Rat, Mouse
Intended Use
The Endotoxin IgG ELISA kit is to be used for the in vitro quantitative determination of endotoxin-core antibodies in serum, plasma and cell culture supernatant.
The Endotoxin IgG ELISA kit can be used for different species, like human, rhesus monkey, rat and mouse. However, when using other samples than human, the standard and tracer have to be replaced by a pool plasma of the used species and the right corresponding HRP-labeled antibody.
This kit is intended for laboratory research use only and is not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. The analysis should be performed by trained laboratory professionals.
Contents of Kit
1. Wash buffer 20x: 1 vial (30 mL), Colorless
2. Dilution buffer A 5x: 1 vial (20 mL), Green
3. Dilution buffer B 10x: 1 vial (10 mL), Green
4. Standard IgG: 2 vials, lyophilized, White
5. IgG conjugate: peroxidase-labeled 100x, 1 vial (0.120 mL), Colorless
6. TMB substrate: 1 vial (11 mL), Brown
7. Stop solution: 1 vial (22 mL), Red
8. 12 Microtiter strips: pre-coated, 1 plate
9. Certificate of Analysis: 1
10. Manual: 1
11. Data collection sheet: 2
Storage
1. Upon receipt, store individual components at 2 - 8°C. Do not freeze.
2. Do not use components beyond the expiration date printed on the kit label.
3. The standard in lyophilized form and the conjugate in concentrated solution are stable until the expiration date indicated on the kit label, if stored at 2 - 8°C.
4. The exact amount of each standard is indicated on the label of the vial and the Certificate of Analysis.
5. After reconstitution the standard is single use and cannot be stored.
6. The conjugate can only be stored in concentrated solution and is not stable when stored diluted.
7. Upon receipt, foil pouch around the plate should be vacuum-sealed and unpunctured. Any irregularities to aforementioned conditions may influence plate performance in the assay.
8. Return unused strips immediately to the foil pouch containing the desiccant pack and reseal along the entire edge of the zip-seal. Quality guaranteed for 1 month if stored at 2 - 8°C.
Detection Range
0.13 - 8 GMU/mL
Sensitivity
0.13 GMU/mL
General Description
The Endotoxin IgG ELISA has been developed for determination of endotoxin core antibodies in human plasma or serum in patients or healthy individuals. Several studies show a consistent drop in postoperative levels of circulating anti-endotoxin core antibodies compared to the preoperative value. This drop has been interpreted as consumption of antibodies to endotoxin by systemic release of endotoxin. A hypothesis is that if the patients pre-operative endotoxin-core level is low, even moderately low, patients may not be able to cope with the efflux of endotoxin, which may have mild to severe clinical consequences. The assay is of interest for various experimental conditions ranging from in vitro LPS neutralization by plasma components to in vivo studies on kinetics of antibodies to endotoxin in health and diseases.
The standard median-units IgG are arbitrary and are based on medians of ranges for 1000 healthy adults in a particular locality. It has not been established whether normal endotoxin-core antibody values vary by region, culture or race. Users should establish appropriate local statistical controls for their studies. It is advised that studies of any patient group should always be controled by studies of appropriately selected contrasting clinical groups and/or healthy individuals recruited locally.

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References


TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathway is responsible for acute lung inflammation induced by reclaimed water

JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Authors: Liu, Gang; Lu, Yun; Shi, Liangliang; Ren, Yunru; Kong, Jiayang; Zhang, Mengyu; Chen, Menghao; Liu, Wanli

Previous research found that inhalation exposure of reclaimed water could cause severe pulmonary inflammation, and the endotoxin was proposed to be the key risk factor. To further support this view, the toxic effects of different reclaimed water induced by acute inhalation exposure were compared between wildtype C57BL/6J and TLR4 signaling pathway defect mice. It was found that reclaimed water with high levels of endotoxin could induce strong inflammation in wildtype mice, but not in Tlr4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mutants. The mixed bacterial culture from the reclaimed water showed very weak response in wildtype mice and no response in TLR4-signaling pathway deficient mice, which further suggested that the cell-bound endotoxins contribute little in the inflammation induced by reclaimed water. In addition, conditional knockout of the Tlr4 gene in myeloid cells resulted in a significant reduction of sensitivity to the reclaimed water in mutants, which indicates that myeloid cells play the most important role in the defensive immune system against the pollutants in the water. In general, this study demonstrated that the TLR4-MyD88 signaling pathway is responsible for the acute lung inflammation induced by reclaimed water, which excludes the possibility of other signaling pathway dependent inflammation inducers in reclaimed water.

Nrf2 Activator PB125(R)as a Potential Therapeutic Agent against COVID-19

ANTIOXIDANTS

Authors: McCord, Joe M.; Hybertson, Brooks M.; Cota-Gomez, Adela; Geraci, Kara P.; Gao, Bifeng

Nrf2 is a transcription factor that regulates cellular redox balance and the expression of a wide array of genes involved in immunity and inflammation, including antiviral actions. Nrf2 activity declines with age, making the elderly more susceptible to oxidative stress-mediated diseases, which include type 2 diabetes, chronic inflammation, and viral infections. Published evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity may regulate important mechanisms affecting viral susceptibility and replication. We examined gene expression levels by GeneChip microarray and by RNA-seq assays. We found that the potent Nrf2-activating composition PB125(R)downregulatesACE2andTMPRSS2mRNA expression in human liver-derived HepG2 cells.ACE2is a surface receptor andTMPRSS2activates the spike protein for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells. Furthermore, in endotoxin-stimulated primary human pulmonary artery endothelial cells, we report the marked downregulation by PB125 of 36 genes encoding cytokines. These include IL-1-beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and a group of IFN-gamma-induced genes. Many of these cytokines have been specifically identified in the "cytokine storm" observed in fatal cases of COVID-19, suggesting that Nrf2 activation may significantly decrease the intensity of the storm.

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