Artificial Intelligence-Based Smart Engineering Education
SENSORS AND SMART STRUCTURES TECHNOLOGIES FOR CIVIL, MECHANICAL, AND AEROSPACE SYSTEMS 2020
Authors: Ouyang, Fan; Jiao, Pengcheng; Alavi, Amir H.
Artificial intelligence has the capacity to open new opportunities and potentials for engineering education. Artificial intelligence in education has undergone several paradigmatic shifts in its brief history. This study investigates the advent, development and future trends of artificial intelligence-based smart engineering education (AIED-Eng). Particular focus is placed on major paradigms in AIED-Eng including leaner-receiver, learner-partner and learner-center. The artificial intelligence techniques applied to these paradigms are evaluated. Computer-based tools enabling the engineering education paradigms are summarized. Further discussion is presented about the key role of artificial intelligence in improving smart engineering education as a guidance for future learning, teaching and design processes.
Whole-Mount In Situ Hybridization in Zebrafish Embryos and Tube Formation Assay in iPSC-ECs to Study the Role of Endoglin in Vascular Development
JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS
Authors: Wang, Yong; Zhang, Ding; Zhou, Fang; Zhou, Meijun; Li, Qiujie; Chen, Jingyu; Yang, Jun
Vascular development is determined by the sequential expression of specific genes, which can be studied by performing in situ hybridization assays in zebrafish during different developmental stages. To investigate the role of endoglin(eng) in vessel formation during the development of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), morpholino-mediated targeted knockdown of eng in zebrafish are used to study its temporal expression and associated functions. Here, whole-mount in situ RNA hybridization (WISH) is employed for the analysis of eng and its downstream genes in zebrafish embryos. Also, tube formation assays are performed in HHT patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell-differentiated endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs; with eng mutations). A specific signal amplifying system using the whole amount In Situ Hybridization - WISH provides higher resolution and lower background results compared to traditional methods. To obtain a better signal, the post-fixation time is adjusted to 30 min after probe hybridization. Because fluorescence staining is not sensitive in zebrafish embryos, it is replaced with diaminobezidine (DAB) staining here. In this protocol, HHT patient-derived iPSC lines containing an eng mutation are differentiated into endothelial cells. After coating a plate with basement membrane matrix for 30 min at 37 degrees C, iPSC-ECs are seeded as a monolayer into wells and kept at 37 degrees C for 3 h. Then, the tube length and number of branches are calculated using microscopic images. Thus, with this improved WISH protocol, it is shown that reduced eng expression affects endothelial progenitor formation in zebrafish embryos. This is further confirmed by tube formation assays using iPSC-ECs derived from a patient with HHT. These assays confirm the role for eng in early vascular development.