Coat color alterations over the years and their association with growth performances in the Menz sheep central nucleus and community-based breeding programs
TROPICAL ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION
Authors: Getachew, Tesfaye; Abebe, Ayele; Gizaw, Solomon; Rischkowsky, Barbara; Bisrat, Asfaw; Haile, Aynalem
In the traditional Menz sheep breeding, communities select against black coat color and therefore its frequency is declining over time. We hypothesize that this exercise is causing the loss of an important gene pool. Data collected from on-station Menz sheep nucleus (n = 1992) and community-based breeding program (CBBP) (n = 5578) were analyzed to (1) assess color proportion dynamics over years and (2) associate phenotypic performances and estimated breeding values (EBVs) for growth traits with coat color of the animals. The on-station nucleus considered growth trait as selection criteria, while CBBP focused on a combination of growth and morphological characters. The results showed that the proportion of black coat color increased across years in the on-station nucleus flock (2.1% per year). However, in the CBBP, flocks' proportion of black coat color declined over time (1.03-1.05% per year). Birth and growth traits of black-colored sheep were consistently superior (P < 0.05) to white-colored sheep. Mean yearling weight and EBV of black rams used in the on-station flock was 24.3 kg and 3.7 kg, respectively, while the values for white-colored sheep were 19.7 kg and 1.6 kg, respectively. This variation in growth performances of Menz sheep among different colors may be due to the linkage between color and growth performance genes. Thus, selection against black coat color in the CBBPs seems to have an adverse effect on the genetic progress of growth traits in the Menz sheep. Understanding the core reasons behind the prevailing selection against black coat color and devising measures to address them should be considered. Developing a black line targeting specific markets might also be worthy to maximize production as well as maintain qualities associated with black color.
Gastric cancer: a comprehensive review of current and future treatment strategies
CANCER AND METASTASIS REVIEWS
Authors: Sexton, Rachel E.; Al Hallak, Mohammed Najeeb; Diab, Maria; Azmi, Asfar S.
Gastric cancer remains a major unmet clinical problem with over 1 million new cases worldwide. It is the fourth most commonly occurring cancer in men and the seventh most commonly occurring cancer in women. A major fraction of gastric cancer has been linked to variety of pathogenic infections including but not limited to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) or Epstein Barr virus (EBV). Strategies are being pursued to prevent gastric cancer development such asH. pylorieradication, which has helped to prevent significant proportion of gastric cancer. Today, treatments have helped to manage this disease and the 5-year survival for stage IA and IB tumors treated with surgery are between 60 and 80%. However, patients with stage III tumors undergoing surgery have a dismal 5-year survival rate between 18 and 50% depending on the dataset. These figures indicate the need for more effective molecularly driven treatment strategies. This review discusses the molecular profile of gastric tumors, the success, and challenges with available therapeutic targets along with newer biomarkers and emerging targets.