An overview of viral infections of the nervous system in the immunosuppressed
JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY
Authors: Kennedy, Peter G. E.
Several viruses have the capacity to cause serious infections of the nervous system in patients who are immunosuppressed. Individuals may be immunosuppressed because of primary inherited immunodeficiency, secondary immunodeficiency due to particular diseases such as malignancy, administration of immunosuppressant drugs or organ or bone marrow transplantation. The viruses capable of such opportunistic infection of the nervous system include herpes simplex virus (HSV), Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein -Barr virus (EBV), Human Herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6), JC virus (JCV), enterovirus, measles virus and Covid-19. In most cases it seems likely that immunological defence mechanisms in the immunosuppressed are deficient which creates a suitable environment for certain viruses to become opportunistic in the nervous and other systems. Further research is required both to understand these opportunistic mechanisms in more detail and also to determine how many virus infections are modified by specific inborn errors of immunological responses.
The First Case of Concomitant Mycobacterium Genavense Lymphadenitis and EBV-Positive Lymphoproliferative Disorder
MEDITERRANEAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Authors: Ito, Yusuke; Takaoka, Kensuke; Toyama, Kazuhiro; Taoka, Kazuki; Wakabayashi, Yoshitaka; Shinozaki-Ushiku, Aya; Okazaki, Aiko; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Mitarai, Satoshi; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Kurokawa, Mineo
This is the first case of concurrent Mycobacterium genavense lymphadenitis and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) in the same lymph node with no immunocompromised history. M. genavense infection is a rare opportunistic infection mainly for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Although no immunodeficiency was detected in our patient, our case indicates that the immunodeficiency in the background of EBV latency type III and the immunosuppression by malignant lymphoma itself might induce the M. genavense lymphadenitis. This case highly alerts clinicians to the immunosuppressive state of EBV-positive LPD with latency type III even if any immunodeficient serological factors are not detected.