Cytosine DNA methylation at promoter of non LTR retrotransposon and heat shock protein gene (HSP70) of Entamoeba histolytica and lack of correlation with transcription status
MOLECULAR AND BIOCHEMICAL PARASITOLOGY
Authors: Agrahari, Mridula; Gaurav, Amit Kumar; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha
Non LTR retrotransposons (EhLINEs and EhSINEs) occupy 11% of the Entamoeba histolytica genome. Since promoter DNA methylation at cytosines has been correlated with transcriptional silencing of transposable elements in model organisms we checked whether this was the case in EhLINE1. We located promoter activity in a 841 bp fragment at 5'-end of this element by luciferase reporter assay. From RNAseq and RT-PCR analyses we selected a transcriptionally active and silent copy to study cytosine DNA methylation of the promoter region by bisulfite sequencing. None of the cytosines were methylated in either copy. Further, we looked at methylation status of a few selected cytosines in all 5'-intact EhLINE1 copies by single nucleotide incorporation opposite cytosine in bisulfite-treated DNA, where dGTP would be incorporated if the cytosine was methylated. Again we did not find evidence of cytosine methylation, indicating that expression status of this element was not correlated with promoter DNA methylation. To test for any role of cytosine methylation in transcriptional regulation of the E. histolytica Hsp70 gene in which the promoter is fully methylated under normal growth conditions, we checked methylation status and found that the promoter remained fully methylated during heat-shock as well, although transcription was greatly enhanced by heat-shock, showing that cytosine methylation is not a repressive mark for EhHsp70. Our data present direct evidence that promoter methylation, a common mode of transposon silencing, is unlikely to be involved in transcriptional regulation of EhLINE1, and reinforce the conclusion that promoter DNA methylation may not be a major contributor to transcriptional regulation in E. histolytica. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Iron responsive-like elements in the parasite Entamoeba histolytica
Authors: Soto-Castro, Liliana; Yuliana Plata-Guzman, Laura; Elvira Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa; Santos Calla-Choque, Jaeson; Reyes-Lopez, Magda; de la Garza, Mireya; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Antonio Garzon-Tiznado, Jose; Arroyo, Rossana; Leon-Sicairos, Claudia
In Entamoeba histolytica, iron modulates virulence and gene expression via unknown regulatory mechanisms. The existence of a posttranscriptional iron regulatory system parallel with the iron-responsive element (IRE)/iron regulatory protein (IRP) system in the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis has recently been reported. Due to their evolutionary closeness and the importance of iron for growth and virulence in these protozoa, we hypothesized the existence of an IRE/IRP-like mechanism in E. histolytica. To determine the presence of IRE-like elements in some mRNAs from this parasite, we performed in silico analyses of the 5' -and 3'- UTRs of mRNAs encoding virulence factors and cytoskeleton, ribosomal and metabolism proteins. The Zuker mfold software predicted IRE-like secondary structures in 52 of the 135 mRNAs analysed. However, only nine structures shared sequence similarity with the apical loop sequence (CAGUGN) of the previously reported human IRE-ferritin, whereas the GUU/UUG protozoan-specific motif was detected in 23 stem-loop structures. A new motif, AUU/AUUU, was also observed in 23 structures, suggesting the possible existence of an amoeba-specific motif. Additionally, cross-linking and RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed specific RNA-protein interactions, using as a model two amoebic IRE-like elements from iron-regulated mRNAs and HeLa, T. vaginalis and E. histolytica cytoplasmic proteins. Our data suggest the presence of a posttranscriptional iron regulatory IRE/IRP-like mechanism in E. histolytica.