Astragalus fasciculifolius manna; antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in mice
Authors: Shahrani, Mehrdad; Asgharzadeh, Najmeh; Torki, Akram; Asgharian, Shirin; Lorigooini, Zahra
Introduction: Inflammation is one of the body's natural defence mechanisms alongside the cells or tissues damage due to various stimuli or infections. Pain is one of the greatest common symbols associated with different diseases. Therefore, researchers are trying to find new medications that bring patients relief with fewer side effects. Herbal medicine has been used for periods to treat acute and chronic pains. Objectives: This research evaluated the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antioxidant properties of Astragalus fasciculifolius manna extract. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potency of the extract were determined by xylene test and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Results: Astragalus fasciculifolius manna extract at doses of 400, 800 and 1200 mg/kg significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced paw licking (late and early phase) but did not affect mechanical hyperalgesia caused by heat. Moreover, naloxone failed to inhibit the antinociceptive activity of the extract. The extract of A. fasciculifolius manna also exhibited high anti-inflammatory activity against xylene induced ear edema. Treatment of mice with the extract did not improve serum antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: Results of the present research showed that A. fasciculifolius manna can prevent pain and inflammation because of the presence of high amount of saponin.
Federico Fellini and the debate in Italian feminist magazines (1973-80)
JOURNAL OF ITALIAN CINEMA AND MEDIA STUDIES
Authors: Cantore, Francesca; Muggeo, Giulia
Many articles focus on the feminine 'Fellinian' models and stereotypes, on his sexist imaginary and, in wider terms, on the relationship between Fellini and women in general, but very few analyses have actually investigated the real effects that these feminist critics had in shaping Federico Fellini's public image. Starting from the debate that surrounds his films La citta delle donne (City of Women) (1980), Amarcord (1973) and II Casanova di Federico Fellini (Fellini's Casanova) (1976), this article analyses the bonds between Fellini and the feminist movement in the 1970s, and it focuses on the role played by feminist magazines in the director's public image construction. The problematic relationship between Fellini and the feminist movement and ideologies will be analysed especially through a review of feminist magazines such as Quotidiano donna and Effe. Daily newspapers II Giomo, Corriere della Sera and Paese Sera will also be taken into account in order to consider a wider field of investigation.