The role of T cells in pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid
Authors: Fang, Hui; Li, Qingyang; Wang, Gang
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and bullous pemphigoid (BP) are autoantibody-mediated diseases clinically characterized by blisters and erosions of skin and/or mucous membranes. Immune imbalance and antibody generation are the key pathologies of autoimmune bullous diseases. Recently, a large number of studies have shown that T cell subsets, which are critical players in autoimmunity, exhibit a range of abnormalities and drive immunopathogenesis and skin inflammation in PV and BP. T helper (Th)1 cells mediate pro-inflammatory or immune responses through IFN-gamma and Th2-derived cytokines, such as IL-4, can promote B cell proliferation, antibody production and immunoglobulin class-switching. Th17 cells promote inflammatory response and skin damage, while regulatory T cells suppress autoreactive CD4(+) T cell activation and help control inflammation. T follicular helper cells cross-talk with B cells and facilitate autoantibody production. In this review, we discuss the immune features of PV and BP, with a focus on the aberrations in T cell subsets, such as Th1 cells, Th2 cells, Th17 cells, regulatory T cells, T follicular helper cells, CD8(+) T cells, gamma delta T cells and resident memory T cells in the pathogenesis of PV and BP. Improved understanding of biological and immunological functions of T cell subsets in patients with autoimmune skin disorders will offer unique opportunities for the recognition of treatment targets for these complex diseases.
Lateral flow assay modified with time-delay wax barriers as a sensitivity and signal enhancement strategy
BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS
Authors: Sena-Torralba, Amadeo; Duy Ba Ngo; Parolo, Claudio; Hu, Liming; Alvarez-Diduk, Ruslan; Francisco Bergua, Jose; Rosati, Giulio; Surareungchai, Werasak; Merkoci, Arben
The ease of use, low cost and quick operation of lateral flow assays (LFA) have made them some of the most common point of care biosensors in a variety of fields. However, their generally low sensitivity has limited their use for more challenging applications, where the detection of low analytic concentrations is required. Here we propose the use of soluble wax barriers to selectively and temporarily accumulate the target and label nanoparticles on top of the test line (TL). This extended internal incubation step promotes the formation of the immune-complex, generating a 51.7-fold sensitivity enhancement, considering the limit of quantification, and up to 96% signal enhancement compared to the conventional LFA for Human IgG (H-IgG) detection.