Dog CRP reference serum (DAGA-625)

Specificity
Canine, Dog
Nature
Native
Tag/Conjugate
Unconjugated
Alternative Names
Dog; CRP; C-reactive protein; Serum
Procedure
None
Format
Liquid
Concentration
Batch dependent - please inquire should you have specific requirements
Size
1ml
Preservative
0.1% Sodium Azide
Storage
Frozen -20°C
Antigen Description
C-reactive protein (CRP) is aprotein found in the blood, the levels of which rise in response toinflammation (i.e. C-reactive protein is an acute-phase protein). Itsphysiological role is to bind to phosphocholine expressed on the surface ofdead or dying cells (and some types of bacteria) in order to activate thecomplement system via the C1Q complex. CRP is synthesized by the liver inresponse to factors released by fat cells (adipocytes). It is a member of thepentraxin family of proteins. It is not related to C-peptide or protein C. C-reactiveprotein was the first pattern recognition receptor (PRR) to be identified.
Keywords
Dog;CRP;C-reactive protein;Serum

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References


MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE Rationale and current evidence for testosterone therapy in the management of obesity and its complications

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY

Authors: Lapauw, Bruno; Kaufman, Jean-Marc

Overt hypogonadism in men adversely affects body composition and metabolic health, which generally improve upon testosterone (TS) therapy. As obese men often display lower serum TS levels, in particular when they present with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM), there have been claims that androgen therapy prevents or reverses obesity and improves metabolic health. This has contributed to the increase in TS prescriptions during the past two decades. In this narrative review, based on findings from larger observational studies and randomized controlled intervention trials, we evaluate whether low TS predicts or predisposes to obesity and its metabolic consequences, and whether obese men with low TS are truly hypogonadal. We further describe the mechanisms underlying the bi-directional relationships of TS levels with obesity and metabolic health, and finally assess the evidence for TS therapy in men with obesity, MetS and/or T2DM, considering efficacy, safety concerns and possible alternative approaches. It is concluded that low serum sex hormone-binding globulin and total TS levels are highly prevalent in obese men, but that only those with low free TS levels and signs or symptoms of hypogonadism should be considered androgen deficient. These alterations are reversible upon weight loss. Whether low TS is a biomarker rather than a true risk factor for metabolic disturbances remains unclear. Considering the limited number of sound TS therapy trials have shown beneficial effects, the modest amplitude of these effects, and unresolved safety issues, one cannot in the present state-of-the-art advocate TS therapy to prevent or reverse obesity-associated metabolic disturbances. Instead, the focus should remain on lifestyle measures and management of obesity-related consequences.

Repeated and single maternal separation specifically alter microglial morphology in the prefrontal cortex and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of 15-day-old male mice

NEUROREPORT

Authors: Reshetnikov, Vasiliy; Ryabushkina, Yulia; Kovner, Anna; Lepeshko, Arina; Bondar, Natalia

Early-life adversity impairs neuronal plasticity of the developing brain. In rodents, brain maturation processes, including neuro- and synaptogenesis, myelination, microglial maturation, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis development continue in the postnatal period. In our study, two models of early-life stress were used: repeated maternal separation (MS) from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND14 for 3 h daily and single maternal deprivation (MD) on PND9 for 24 h. Effects of each type of early-life stress on neuron density, neurogenesis, microglial morphology, and HPA axis programming were studied in 15-day-old male mice. Neither early-life stress paradigm affected the expression of stress-related genes (Crh, Avp, Crhr1, Crhr2, Nr3c1, and Nr3c2) and the serum level of corticosterone on PND15. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on slices of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) with antibodies against a marker of mature neurons (NeuN), of microglia (Iba1), proliferating cells (Ki67), and immature neurons (DCX). We found higher density of ameboid microglia and intermediate microglia in the PFC in groups MS and MD, respectively, than in a control group. In both stressed groups, a higher number of Ki67-positive cells was noted in the dentate gyrus. Thus, in mice, the process of transformation of ameboid microglia into ramified ones as well as a neurogenesis reduction take place during the second postnatal week, whereas early-life stress can disturb these processes in a stress- and region-dependent manner.

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