The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Regulating T Cell-mediated Immunity and Disease
Authors: Yarosz, Emily L.; Chang, Cheong-Hee
T lymphocytes rely on several metabolic processes to produce the high amounts of energy and metabolites needed to drive clonal expansion and the development of effector functions. However, many of these pathways result in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have canonically been thought of as cytotoxic agents due to their ability to damage DNA and other subcellular structures. Interestingly, ROS has recently emerged as a critical second messenger for T cell receptor signaling and T cell activation, but the sensitivity of different T cell subsets to ROS varies. Therefore, the tight regulation of ROS production by cellular antioxidant pathways is critical to maintaining proper signal transduction without compromising the integrity of the cell. This review intends to detail the common metabolic sources of intracellular ROS and the mechanisms by which ROS contributes to the development of T cell-mediated immunity. The regulation of ROS levels by the glutathione pathway and the Nrf2-Keap1-Cul3 trimeric complex will be discussed. Finally, T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases exacerbated by defects in ROS regulation will be further examined in order to identify potential therapeutic interventions for these disorders.
PLEKHA4/kramer Attenuates Dishevelled Ubiquitination to Modulate Wnt and Planar Cell Polarity Signaling
Authors: Shah, Adnan Shami; Batrouni, Alex G.; Kim, Dongsung; Punyala, Amith; Cao, Wendy; Han, Chun; Goldberg, Michael L.; Smolka, Marcus B.; Baskin, Jeremy M.
Wnt signaling pathways direct key physiological decisions in development. Here, we establish a role for a pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein, PLEKHA4, as a modulator of signaling strength in Wnt-receiving cells. PLEKHA4 oligomerizes into clusters at PI(4,5)P-2-rich regions of the plasma membrane and recruits the Cullin-3 (CUL3) E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor Kelch-like protein 12 (KLHL12) to these assemblies. This recruitment decreases CUL3-KLHL12-mediated polyubiquitination of Dishevelled, a central intermediate in canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. Knockdown of PLEKHA4 in mammalian cells demonstrates that PLEKHA4 positively regulates canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling via these effects on the Dishevelled polyubiquitination machinery. In vivo knockout of the Drosophila melanogaster PLEKHA4 homolog, kramer, selectively affects the non-canonical, planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway. We propose that PLEKHA4 tunes the sensitivities of cells toward the stimulation of Wnt or PCP signaling by sequestering a key E3 ligase adaptor controlling Dishevelled polyubiquitination within PI(4,5) P-2-rich plasma membrane clusters.