Developmental outcomes after gestational antidepressant treatment with sertraline and its discontinuation in an animal model of maternal depression
BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH
Authors: Kott, Jennifer M.; Mooney-Leber, Sean M.; Brummelte, Susanne
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed to women before or during pregnancy to manage their depressive symptoms. However, there is still little knowledge regarding the long-term development effects of SSRI exposure for the fetus or the effects of discontinuing SSRI treatment during pregnancy. This study utilized a translational animal model of maternal depression (based on giving high levels of corticosterone (CORT, 40 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (Oil) for 21 days prior to conception) to investigate the effects of sertraline (a frequently prescribed SSRI; 20 mg/kg p.o., treatment started similar to 7 days prior to conception) and its discontinuation during pregnancy (on gestational day 16) compared to vehicle (water) treatment on the development of the offspring. Our results revealed that both corticosterone exposure prior to pregnancy and sertraline administration and its discontinuation during gestation had sex-specific effects on behavior in the adult offspring. In particular, pre-conceptional maternal corticosterone treatment impacted the stress response, anxiety-like behavior and cognitive performance in adult female offspring, while gestational SSRI exposure and its discontinuation compared to full-term exposure affected impulsivity in females, and exploratory behavior in males. More research is needed on the effects of exposure to antidepressant medication and its discontinuation compared to depression during pregnancy and how each impacts development to better help women make informed decisions about their medication use during pregnancy.
Dehydration as a stressor in toads (Rhinella ornata)
JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY PART A-ECOLOGICAL AND INTEGRATIVE PHYSIOLOGY
Authors: Giorgi Barsotti, Adriana Maria; Titon Junior, Braz; Monteiro Titon, Stefanny Christie; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro
Availability of a humid environment is essential for amphibians to carry out their activities and most species are characterized by low resistance to evaporative water loss. Moreover, dehydration severely compromises amphibian locomotor and foraging performance, representing a relevant selective factor modulating the evolution of its integrative phenotype. In this way, we hypothesized that dehydration is a stressor for toads, inducing a stress response comparable to that elicited by another commonly used stress protocol: restraint challenge. We evaluated changes in plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), hematocrit (Hct), and neutrophil:lymphocyte (N:L) ratio in adult males of Rhinella ornata, experimentally submitted to different levels of hydration (100%, 90%, and 80% of standard body mass) and to restraint challenge. Our results showed that dehydrating toads by 10% increase CORT to levels equivalent to that obtained by restraint. Moreover, toads dehydrated by 20% show a more pronounced increase in CORT, along with increased Hct and N:L ratio. In this way, we corroborated the hypothesis that dehydration triggers a pronounced stress response in R. ornata. Highlights Dehydration can elicit a stress response in toads, by increasing corticosterone plasma levels and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. Corticosterone plasma levels were higher in individuals 20% dehydrated than in subjects submitted to restriction of movement, showing that dehydration may offer high intensity stress.