Anabolic effects of feeding beta(2)-adrenergic agonists on rainbow trout muscle proteases and proteins
COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY A-MOLECULAR & INTEGRATIVE PHYSIOLOGY
Authors: Salem, Mohamed; Levesque, Haude; Moon, Thomas W.; Rexroad, Caird E.; Yao, Jianbo
2-Adrenergic agonists (BAAs) act as repartitioning agents in domestic animals by redistributing nutrients away from adipose tissue and towards muscle accretion. The mechanism involves altering the rates of protein degradation and synthesis. The aim of this study was to test the effects of chronic feeding of the BAAs clenbuterol (CLEN) and ractopamine (RACT) on rainbow trout (RBT) muscle. Specifically, we examined the activities and mRNA levels of genes in the major proteolytic pathways including calpains, the multi-catalytic proteasome and cathepsins, and the mRNA levels of genes encoding the myofibrillar proteins, fast-twitch and slow-twitch myosin heavy chains (f-MHC and s-MHC, respectively), and the cytoskeletal protein, p-actin. RACT feeding significantly increased mRNA transcripts of the calpain catalytic subunit (Capn1), the regulatory subunit (cpns), and the calpastatin large isoform (CAST-L), without affecting the calpain enzyme activity. CLEN feeding significantly increased mRNA levels of the proteasome alpha subunit without a corresponding change in 20S enzyme activity. RACT significantly decreased cathepsin D activity without affecting mRNA levels suggesting that the action of RACT may be at the post-transcriptional level. In addition, both CLEN and RACT significantly increased mRNA transcripts of f-MHC and beta-actin genes suggesting an anabolic role of BAAs on myofibrillar and cytoskeletal proteins. Neither CLEN nor RACT altered mRNA expression of the s-MHC gene indicating no transformation of muscle fiber-types. This study supports a role for BAAs in inducing RBT muscle accretion by altering both protein synthesis and degradation. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Development of Protein A Functionalized Microcantilever Immunosensors for the Analyses of Small Molecules at Parts per Trillion Levels
Authors: Tan, Weiming; Huang, Yuan; Nan, Tiegui; Xue, Changguo; Li, Zhaohu; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wang, Baomin
Development of microcantilever biosensors for small molecules was exemplified with the beta-adrenergic agonist clenbuterol and the antibiotic chloramphenicol. In this paper, antibody sulfhydrylation and protein A were used to modify the microcantilever Au surface, and the antibody activities on the microcantilever were evaluated with direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dcELISA). The activity of the antibodies immobilized on the microcantilever via protein A was 1.7-fold of that via the sulfhydrylation reagent 2-iminothiolane hydrochloride. A microcantilever immunosensor method with protein A as the functionalization reagent was established to detect the., residues of clenbuterol and chloramphenicol at limits of detection (LOD) of approximately 0.1 and 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. Such LODs were better than that of the corresponding dcELISAs. The concentration of clen- buterol in a fortified feed sample detected with the microcantilever immunosensor after thorough extraction and purification agreed well with that detected with the dcELISA. Protein A showed to be simple and reproducible for functionalization of the antibodies on the Au surface and, thus, has common application values in microcantilever immunosensor development. The results suggest that microcantilever immunosensors be suitable for detection of small molecules, and the assay sensitivity is mainly related to the quality and activities of the antibodies.