Network Structure Analysis Identifying Key Genes of Autism and Its Mechanism
COMPUTATIONAL AND MATHEMATICAL METHODS IN MEDICINE
Authors: Wang, Yanhui; Kou, Yanming; Meng, Dazhi
Identifying the key genes of autism is of great significance for understanding its pathogenesis and improving the clinical level of medicine. In this paper, we use the structural parameters (average degree) of gene correlation networks to identify genes related to autism and study its pathogenesis. Based on the gene expression profiles of 82 autistic patients (the experimental group, E) and 64 healthy persons (the control group, C) in NCBI database, spearman correlation networks are established, and their average degrees under different thresholds are analyzed. It is found that average degrees of C and E are basically separable at the full thresholds. This indicates that there is a clear difference between the network structures of C and E, and it also suggests that this difference is related to the mechanism of disease. By annotating and enrichment analysis of the first 20 genes (MD-Gs) with significant difference in the average degree, we find that they are significantly related to gland development, cardiovascular development, and embryogenesis of nervous system, which support the results in Alter et al.'s original research. In addition, FIGF and CSF3 may play an important role in the mechanism of autism.
Time course of skin features and inflammatory biomarkers after liquid sulfur mustard exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice
Authors: Mouret, Stephane; Wartelle, Julien; Batal, Mohamed; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Poyot, Thomas; Clery-Barraud, Cecile; El Bakdouri, Nacera; Peinnequin, Andre; Douki, Thierry; Boudry, Isabelle
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong bifunctional alkylating agent that produces severe tissue injuries characterized by erythema, edema, subepidermal blisters and a delayed inflammatory response after cutaneous exposure. However, despite its long history, SM remains a threat because of the lack of effective medical countermeasures as the molecular mechanisms of these events remain unclear. This limited number of therapeutic options results in part of an absence of appropriate animal models. We propose here to use SKH-1 hairless mouse as the appropriate model for the design of therapeutic strategies against SM-induced skin toxicity. In the present study particular emphasis was placed on histopathological changes associated with inflammatory responses after topical exposure of dorsal skin to three different doses of SM (0.6, 6 and 60 mg/kg) corresponding to a superficial, a second-degree and a third-degree burn. Firstly, clinical evaluation of SM-induced skin lesions using non invasive bioengineering methods showed that erythema and impairment of skin barrier increased in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation of skin sections exposed to SM revealed that the time to onset and the severity of symptoms including disorganization of epidermal basal cells, number of pyknotic nuclei, activation of mast cells and neutrophils dermal invasion were dose-dependent. These histopathological changes were associated with a dose-and time-dependent increase in expression of specific mRNA for inflammatory mediators such as interleukins (IL1 beta and IL6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP-1 alpha, MIP-2 and MIP-1 alpha R) and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC also called CXCL1) as well as adhesion molecules (L-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)) and growth factor (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Csf3)). A dose-dependent increase was also noted after SM exposure for mRNA of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP9) and laminin-gamma 2 which are associated with SM-induced blisters formation. Taken together, our results show that SM-induced skin histopathological changes related to inflammation is similar in SKH-1 hairless mice and humans. SKH-1 mouse is thus a reliable animal model for investigating the SM-induced skin toxicity and to develop efficient treatment against SM-induced inflammatory skin lesions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.