Maternal and congenital infections arising from Zika, dengue and Chikungunya arboviruses in Salvador, Brazil
TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE
Authors: Duarte, Alan Oliveira; Oliveira, Joao Vitor; Xavier Carvalho, Tereza Cristina; Pessoa, Lorena de Brito; Magalhaes Filho, Claudio; Souza Lima, Jessica Graziele; Carvalho, Daniel Augusto; dos Santos, Daiana Carlos; Santos, Cleiton Silva; Pessoa, Rosana; Souza, Gloryane Bessa; Calcagno, Juan Ignacio; Santana, Edilene Mota; de Oliveira, Aline Sousa; de Oliveira Francisco, Marcos Vinicius Lima; Gouvea Costa, Bernardo Gratival; Gomes, Lillian Nunes; Romero, Fernando; Khouri, Ricardo; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos, Jr.; de Mendonca Lima, Fernanda Washington; de Siqueira, Isadora Cristina
Background: Salvador was one of the Brazilian cities most affected during the 2015 Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with enrolment of parturients and their newborns. Results: Positive IgM antibodies for ZIKV, dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) were present in 6.9, 11.9 and 22.8% of the parturients, and IgG antibodies were detected in 72.3, 92.3 and 38.6%, respectively. No cases of DENV congenital infection were identified. ZIKV and CHIKV congenital infections were observed in 16.5 and 13% of newborns, respectively. Conclusions: High exposure rates to the three arboviruses and the identification of newborns with ZIKV and CHIKV congenital infections reinforces the necessity of ZIKV and CHIKV prenatal and neonatal screening in endemic regions.
Inactivation and Removal of Chikungunya Virus and Mayaro Virus from Plasma-derived Medicinal Products
Authors: Yue, Constanze; Teitz, Sebastian; Miyabashi, Tomoyuki; Boller, Klaus; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Baylis, Sally A.; Bluemel, Johannes
Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Mayaro virus (MAYV) are closely related members of the Semliki Forest complex within the genus alphavirus and are transmitted by arthropods, causing acute febrile illness in humans. CHIKV has spread to almost all continents, whereas autochthonous MAYV infections have been reported in South America and in the Caribbean. Nevertheless, there was concern about potential spread of MAYV to other regions similar to CHIKV in the past. The risk for transmission of emerging viruses by blood transfusion and the safety of plasma-derived medicinal products (PDMPs) are constant concerns. The manufacturing processes of PDMPs include procedures to inactivate/remove viruses. Methods: In this study, we investigated the reduction of MAYV and CHIKV by heat inactivation in various matrices, solvent/detergent treatment and nanofiltration. Results: Unexpectedly, MAYV was significantly more resistant to heat and solvent/detergent treatment compared to CHIKV. However, being similar in size, both MAYV and CHIKV were removed below the detection limit by 35 nm virus filters. Conclusions: The inactivation profiles of different alphavirus members vary considerably, even within the Semliki Forest Complex. However, robust dedicated viral inactivation/removal procedures commonly used in the plasma product industry are effective in inactivating or removing MAYV and CHIKV.