Chicken transferrin reference serum (DAGA-621)

Chicken transferrin reference serum, native protein

Alternative Names
Chicken; Transferrin; Serum
Batch dependent - please inquire should you have specific requirements
0.1% Sodium Azide
Frozen -20°C
Antigen Description
Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron (Fe) in biological fluids. Human transferrin is encoded by the TF gene.Transferrin glycoproteins bind iron tightly, but reversibly. Although iron bound to transferrin is less than 0.1% (4 mg) of total body iron, it forms the most vital iron pool with the highest rate of turnover (25 mg/24 h). Transferrin has a molecular weight of around 80 KDa and contains two specific high-affinity Fe(III) binding sites. The affinity of transferrin for Fe(III) is extremely high (association constant is 1020 M−1 at pH 7.4),but decreases progressively with decreasing pH below neutrality.


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Beta2 glycoprotein I-derived therapeutic peptides induce sFlt-1 secretion to reduce melanoma vascularity and growth


Authors: Smalley, Haley; Rowe, Jennifer M.; Nieto, Fernando; Zeledon, Jazmin; Pollard, Kellyn; Tomich, John M.; Fleming, Sherry D.

Melanoma, a form of skin cancer, is one of the most common cancers in young men and women. Tumors require angiogenesis to provide oxygen and nutrients for growth. Pro-angiogenic molecules such as VEGF and antiangiogenic molecules such as sFlt-1 control angiogenesis. In addition, the serum protein, Beta2 Glycoprotein I (beta 2-GPI) induces or inhibits angiogenesis depending on conformation and concentration. beta 2-GPI binds to proteins and negatively charged phospholipids on hypoxic endothelial cells present in the tumor microenvironment. We hypothesized that peptides derived from the binding domain of beta 2-GPI would regulate angiogenesis and melanoma growth. In vitro analyses determined the peptides reduced endothelial cell migration and sFlt-1 secretion. In a syngeneic, immunocompetent mouse melanoma model, beta 2-GPI-derived peptides also reduced melanoma growth in a dose-dependent response with increased sFlt-1 and attenuated vascular markers compared to negative controls. Importantly, administration of peptide with sFlt-1 antibody resulted in tumor growth. These data demonstrate the therapeutic potential of novel beta 2-GPI-derived peptides to attenuate tumor growth and endothelial migration is sFlt-1 dependent.

Diagnostic Approach for Arboviral Infections in the United States


Authors: Piantadosi, Anne; Kanjilal, Sanjat

Domestic arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are single-stranded RNA viruses, the most common of which include the mosquito-borne West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, La Crosse virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, and eastern equine encephalitis virus, as well as the tick-borne Powassan virus. Previously con sidered rare infections, they have been detected with increasing frequency over the past 2 decades. Here, we present an overview of the domestic arboviruses listed above and describe the modalities employed to diagnose infection. Global arboviruses, including dengue virus, Zika virus, and chikungunya virus, have also been increasingly detected in the United States within the last 5 years but are not a focus of this minireview. Typical manifestations of arbovirus infection range from no symptoms, to meningitis or encephalitis, to death. Serologies are the standard means of diagnosis in the laboratory, since most viruses have a short period of replication, limiting the utility of molecular tests. The interpretation of serologies is confounded by antibody cross-reactivity with viruses belonging to the same serogroup and by long-lasting antibodies from prior infections. Next-generation assays have improved performance by increasing antigen purity, selecting optimal epitopes, and improving interpretive algorithms, but challenges remain. Due to cross-reactivity, a positive first-line serology test requires confirmation by either a plaque reduction neutralization test or detection of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in virus-specific IgM or IgG antibody titers from acuteand convalescent-phase sera. The use of molecular diagnostics, such as reverse transcription PCR or unbiased metagenomic sequencing, is limited to the minority of patients who present with ongoing viremia or central nervous system replication. With the continued expansion of vector range, the diagnosis of domestic arboviruses will become an increasingly important task for generalists and specialists alike.

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