Identifying a Novel Role for X-prolyl Aminopeptidase (Xpnpep) 2 in CrVI-Induced Adverse Effects on Germ Cell Nest Breakdown and Follicle Development in Rats
BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION
Authors: Banu, Sakhila K.; Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert C.
Environmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is one cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC widely used in more than 50 industries, including chrome plating, welding, wood processing, and tanneries. Recent data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency indicate increased levels of Cr in drinking water from several American cities, which potentially predispose residents to various health problems. Recently, we demonstrated that gestational exposure to CrVI caused POF in F1 offspring. The current study was performed to identify the molecular mechanism behind CrVI-induced POF. Pregnant rats were treated with 25 ppm of potassium dichromate from Gestational Day (GD) 9.5 to GD 14.5 through drinking water, and the fetuses were exposed to CrVI through transplacental transfer. Ovaries were removed from the fetuses or pups on Embryonic Day (ED) 15.5, ED 17.5, Postnatal Day (PND) 1, PND 4, or PND 25, and various analyses were performed. Results showed that gestational exposure to CrVI: 1) increased germ cell/oocyte apoptosis and advanced germ cell nest (GCN) breakdown; 2) increased X-prolyl aminopeptidase (Xpnpep) 2, a POF marker in humans, during GCN breakdown; 3) decreased Xpnpep2 during postnatal follicle development; and 4) increased colocalization of Xpnpep2 with Col3 and Col4. We also found that Xpnpep2 inversely regulated the expression of Col1, Col3, and Col4 in all the developmental stages studied. Thus, CrVI advanced GCN breakdown and increased follicle atresia in F1 female progeny by targeting Xpnpep2.
Promising effects of exosomes isolated from menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell on wound-healing process in diabetic mouse model
JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE
Authors: Dalirfardouei, Razieh; Jamialahmadi, Khadijeh; Jafarian, Amir Hossein; Mahdipour, Elahe
Wound healing is a complicated process that contains a number of overlapping and consecutive phases, disruption in each of which can cause chronic nonhealing wounds. In the current study, we investigated the effects of exosomes as paracrine factors released from menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MenSCs) on wound-healing process in diabetic mice. The exosomes were isolated from MenSCs conditioned media using ultracentrifugation and were characterized by scanning electron microscope and western blotting assay. A full thickness excisional wound was created on the dorsal skin of each streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse. The mice were divided into three groups as follows: phosphate buffered saline, exosomes, and MenSC groups. We found that MenSC-derived exosomes can resolve inflammation via induced M1-M2 macrophage polarization. It was observed that exosomes enhance neoangiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factor A upregulation. Re-epithelialization accelerated in the exosome-treated mice, most likely through NF-kappa B p65 subunit upregulation and activation of the NF-kappa B signaling pathway. The results demonstrated that exosomes possibly cause less scar formation through decreased Col1:Col3 ratio. These notable results showed that the MenSC-derived exosomes effectively ameliorated cutaneous nonhealing wounds. We suggest that exosomes can be employed in regenerative medicine for skin repair in difficult-to-heal conditions such as diabetic foot ulcer.