Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii CNCM I-1079 and Lactobacillus acidophilus BT1386 influence innate immune response and serum levels of acute-phase proteins during weaning in Holstein calves
CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE
Authors: Fomenky, Bridget E.; Chiquette, Johanne; Lessard, Martin; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Talbot, Guylaine; Chouinard, Yvan P.; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M.
The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii CNCM I-1079 (SCB) or Lactobacillus acidophilus BT1386 (LA) on (1) innate immune response, (2) markers of acute-phase reaction, and (3) immune gene expression of rumen and ileum tissues of Holstein calves. Forty eight calves (similar to 5 d old) were randomly allocated to four treatments as follows: (1) control (CTRL) fed milk replacer followed by starter feed, (2) CTRL supplemented with SCB in milk and feed, (3) CTRL supplemented with LA in milk and feed, and (4) CTRL supplemented with antibiotics (ATB; chlortetracycline and neomycin in milk, and chlortetracycline in feed). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) decreased (P < 0.05) on day 66 (post-weaning) for the ATB-treated calves. There were no treatment effects on production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) proteins and on expression of TLR4, TLR6, TLR9, TLRI0, CLDN3, MUC1, and MUC20 genes. Calves fed SCB or LA had a greater (P < 0.05) oxidative burst at weaning (day 53) compared with CTRL. Oxidative burst was also greater (P < 0.05) after weaning (day 59 and day 87) for SCB-fed calves. Calves fed SCB and ATB had higher (P < 0.05) phagocytosis activity during weaning (day 47) compared with CTRL. The concentration of serum amyloid A2 (SAA2) increased (P < 0.05) in SCB- and LA-fed calves (day 53), whereas the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) increased (P < 0.05) in SCB-fed calves during weaning as compared with CTRL. Our results suggest that SCB could improve innate immune response (oxidative burst and phagocytosis) and markers of acute-phase reaction (CRP and SAA2), especially during critical periods like weaning.
Differential expression of claudin 1, 3, and 4 during normal mammary gland development in the mouse
DNA AND CELL BIOLOGY
Authors: Blanchard, AAA; Watson, PH; Shiu, RPC; Leygue, E; Nistor, A; Wong, P; Myal, Y
The claudins are a family of tight junction proteins that display varied tissue distribution and preferential specificity. We recently identified by microarray analysis, members of this family, particularly claudin 1 (cldn1), as highly upregulated genes in the mouse mammary gland during early involution. Gene expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. We then examined gene and protein expression throughout normal mammary gland development. The cldn3 gene showed a steady increase in expression from pregnancy to involution, while cldn1 and cldn4 gene expression increased during pregnancy, but decreased sharply by D10 of lactation, and once again was significantly increased by D1 of involution (P < 0.001 for both genes). The different patterns of gene expression observed between cldn3, and cldn1, and 4 suggest that different family members may be functionally important at different times during mouse mammary gland development. All three genes exhibited a high level of expression at day 1 (D1) of involution, followed by a dramatic decrease in gene expression to day 10 of involution. Immunostaining with the cldn3 antibody showed intense staining of epithelial cells; however, a lesser degree of staining was evident with the cldn1 antibody. In addition to the lateral staining of epithelial cells, basal staining was evident at D1 and D2 of involution and cytoplasmic staining was evident during lactation. Since claudins are known to play a role as tight junction proteins, lateral and basal staining may suggest a role in other functions such as vesicle trafficking or remodeling of tight junctions at different stages of mammary gland development. Cldn1 and 3 antibodies also stained epithelial cells in mouse mammary tumors. In summary, cldn1, 3, and 4 are differentially expressed in the mammary gland during pregnancy, lactation, and involution, suggesting different roles for these proteins at different stages of mammary gland function. In addition, cldn1 and cldn3 are detected in mammary tumors and the wide distribution of cldn3 in particular, suggest specific roles for these proteins in mammary tumorigenesis.