Ferritin, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, and C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients with Chikungunya-Induced Chronic Polyarthritis
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE
Authors: Anna Genaro, Maira Sant; de Marchi, Micheli Said; Perin, Matheus Yung; Cosso, Isabelle Silva; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a global emergent arthritogenic alphavirus transmitted by anthropophilic Stegomyia mosquitoes. Chikungunya fever may evolve to chronic arthralgia in 57-80% of infected patients. This study was developed to identify possibly fast, simple low-cost biomarkers to monitor chronic CHIKV-induced articular disease. Between 2017 and 2018, we analyzed clinical data of patients meeting the criteria established by standard protocols to define chronic chikungunya articular disease. Patients were classified according to the disease activity scores, inflammatory biomarkers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], ferritin, and C-reactive protein [CRP] serum), positive rheumatoid factor, comorbidities, smoking, and previous use of corticosteroids determined before beginning therapy. Of 106 patients, 98 (92.5%) were women with mean age of 52 +/- 13 years, 6.8 +/- 4.4 months of illness duration at the first medical appointment, and 6.7 +/- 4.5 affected joints. Mean ESR (26 +/- 19), CRP (2.6 +/- 3.6), and stratified ferritin (144 +/- 115) levels were normal according to reference values. There was no significance in comparing the levels of inflammatory biomarkers and the additional variables analyzed in the presence of moderate chronic joint disease in the study population. However, we identified a negative correlation between disease activity measures and duration of disease at the first medical evaluation after initial infection (P < 0.001), corroborating data observed in the literature.
Vector competence of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes for Mayaro virus
PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES
Authors: Pereira, Thiago Nunes; Carvalho, Fabiano Duarte; De Mendonca, Silvana Faria; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Moreira, Luciano Andrade
Newly emerging or re-emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important causes of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Arboviruses such as Dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and West Nile virus (WNV) have undergone extensive geographic expansion in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. In the Americas the main vectors of DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV are mosquito species adapted to urban environments, namely Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, whereas the main vector of WNV is Culex quinquefasciatus. Given the widespread distribution in the Americas and high permissiveness to arbovirus infection, these mosquito species may play a key role in the epidemiology of other arboviruses normally associated with sylvatic vectors. Here, we test this hypothesis by determining the vector competence of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus to Mayaro (MAYV) virus, a sylvatic arbovirus transmitted mainly by Haemagogus janthinomys that has been causing an increasing number of outbreaks in South America, namely in Brazil. Using field mosquitoes from Brazil, female mosquitoes were experimentally infected, and their competence for infection and transmission rates of MAYV was evaluated. We found consistent infection rate for MAYV in Ae. aegypti (57.5%) and Ae. albopictus (61.6%), whereas very low rates were obtained for Cx. quinquefasciatus (2.5%). Concordantly, we observed high potential transmission ability in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (69.5% and 71.1% respectively), in contrast to Cx. quinquefasciatus, which could not transmit the MAYV. Notably, we found that very low quantities of virus present in the saliva (undetectable by RT-qPCR) were sufficiently virulent to guarantee transmission. Although Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are not the main vectors for MAYV, our studies suggest that these mosquitoes could play a significant role in the transmission of this arbovirus, since both species showed significant vector competence for MAYV (Genotype D), under laboratory conditions.