Vector competence of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes for Mayaro virus
PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES
Authors: Pereira, Thiago Nunes; Carvalho, Fabiano Duarte; De Mendonca, Silvana Faria; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Moreira, Luciano Andrade
Newly emerging or re-emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important causes of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Arboviruses such as Dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and West Nile virus (WNV) have undergone extensive geographic expansion in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. In the Americas the main vectors of DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV are mosquito species adapted to urban environments, namely Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, whereas the main vector of WNV is Culex quinquefasciatus. Given the widespread distribution in the Americas and high permissiveness to arbovirus infection, these mosquito species may play a key role in the epidemiology of other arboviruses normally associated with sylvatic vectors. Here, we test this hypothesis by determining the vector competence of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus to Mayaro (MAYV) virus, a sylvatic arbovirus transmitted mainly by Haemagogus janthinomys that has been causing an increasing number of outbreaks in South America, namely in Brazil. Using field mosquitoes from Brazil, female mosquitoes were experimentally infected, and their competence for infection and transmission rates of MAYV was evaluated. We found consistent infection rate for MAYV in Ae. aegypti (57.5%) and Ae. albopictus (61.6%), whereas very low rates were obtained for Cx. quinquefasciatus (2.5%). Concordantly, we observed high potential transmission ability in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (69.5% and 71.1% respectively), in contrast to Cx. quinquefasciatus, which could not transmit the MAYV. Notably, we found that very low quantities of virus present in the saliva (undetectable by RT-qPCR) were sufficiently virulent to guarantee transmission. Although Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are not the main vectors for MAYV, our studies suggest that these mosquitoes could play a significant role in the transmission of this arbovirus, since both species showed significant vector competence for MAYV (Genotype D), under laboratory conditions.
Chikungunya virus infection induces differential inflammatory and antiviral responses in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages
Authors: Juan Felipe, Valdes Lopez; Paula A, Velilla; Silvio, Urcuqui-Inchima
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a zoonotic arthropod-borne virus that has caused several outbreaks in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide during the last 50 years. The virus is known to target different human cell types throughout the course of infection including epithelial and endothelial cells, fibroblasts, primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). The two latter are phagocytic cell populations of the innate immune system which are involved in some aspects of CHIKV pathogenesis. However, monocytes and macrophages also potentially contribute to the control of viral replication through the expression of different pattern recognition receptors sensing viral pathogens and subsequently, inducing an type I interferone (IFN-I)-dependent antiviral immune response. The aim of this study was to determine the modulation of the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokine secretion capabilities and antiviral factor production in monocytes and MDMs following infection with CHIKV. Moreover, we sought to determine the replication kinetics of CHIKV in these two cell populations. We found that the maximum peak of CHIKV replication was observed between 18- and 24-hours post-infection (hpi), while after that the is strongly reduced. Furthermore, CHIKV infection induced the pro-inflammatory cytokine production starting from the first 6 hpi in both monocytes and MDMs, with similar kinetics but different protein levels. In contrast, the kinetics of transcriptional expression of some TLRs were different between both cell types. In addition, IFN-I, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1), and double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) mRNA levels were detected in response to CHIKV infection of monocytes and MDMs, resulting the highest expression levels at 48 hpi. In conclusion, our data provides evidence that CHIKV infection activates the TLR pathways in primary monocytes and MDMs, which play a crucial role in CHIKV pathogenesis and/or host defense, differentially. However, additional studies are required to determine the functional role of TLRs in monocytes and MDMs.