NEK5 regulates cell cycle progression during mouse oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryonic development
MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT
Authors: Li, Yuan-Yuan; Guo, Lei; Li, Hui; Li, Jian; Dong, Feng; Yi, Zi-Yun; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Hou, Yi; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Lu, Sheng-Sheng; Han, Zhiming
NEK5, a member of never in mitosis-gene A-related protein kinase, is involved in the regulation of centrosome integrity and centrosome cohesion at mitosis in somatic cells. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of NEK5 during mouse oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryonic development. The results showed that NEK5 was expressed from germinal vesicle (GV) to metaphase II (MII) stages during oocyte maturation with the highest level of expression at the GV stage. It was shown that NEK5 localized in the cytoplasm of oocytes at GV stage, concentrated around chromosomes at germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) stage, and localized to the entire spindle at prometaphase I, MI and MII stages. The small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of Nek5 significantly increased the phosphorylation level of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 in oocytes, resulting in a decrease of maturation-promoting factor activity, and severely impaired GVBD. The failure of meiotic resumption caused by Nek5 depletion could be rescued by the depletion of Wee1B. We found that Nek5 depletion did not affect CDC25B translocation into the GV. We also found that NEK5 was expressed from 1-cell to blastocyst stages with the highest expression at the blastocyst stage, and Nek5 depletion severely impaired preimplantation embryonic development. This study demonstrated for the first time that NEK5 plays important roles during meiotic G2/M transition and preimplantation embryonic development.
An in vitro model of chronic wounding and its implication for age-related macular degeneration
Authors: Bailey-Steinitz, Lindsay J.; Shih, Ying-Hsuan; Radeke, Monte J.; Coffey, Pete J.
Degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays a central role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Throughout life, RPE cells are challenged by a variety of cytotoxic stressors, some of which are cumulative with age and may ultimately contribute to drusen and lipofuscin accumulation. Stressors such as these continually damage RPE cells resulting in a state of chronic wounding. Current cell-based platforms that model a state of chronic RPE cell wounding are limited, and the RPE cellular response is not entirely understood. Here, we used the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system to induce a state of acute or chronic wounding on differentiated human fetal RPE cells to analyze changes in the wound repair response. RPE cells surrounding the lesioned area employ both cell migration and proliferation to repair wounds but fail to reestablish their original cell morphology or density after repetitive wounding. Chronically wounded RPE cells develop phenotypic AMD characteristics such as loss of cuboidal morphology, enlarged size, and multinucleation. Transcriptomic analysis suggests a systemic misregulation of RPE cell functions in bystander cells, which are not directly adjacent to the wound. Genes associated with the major RPE cell functions (LRAT, MITF, RDH11) significantly downregulate after wounding, in addition to differential expression of genes associated with the cell cycle (CDK1, CDC6, CDC20), inflammation (IL-18, CCL2), and apoptosis (FAS). Interestingly, repetitive wounding resulted in prolonged misregulation of genes, including FAS, LRAT, and PEDF. The use of ECIS to induce wounding resulted in an over-representation of AMD-associated genes among those dysregulated genes, particularly genes associated with advanced AMD. This simple system provides a new model for further investigation of RPE cell wound response in AMD pathogenesis.