Overexpression of type-1 adenylyl cyclase in mouse forebrain enhances recognition memory and LTP
Authors: Wang, HB; Ferguson, GD; Pineda, VV; Cundiff, PE; Storm, DR
Cyclic AMP is a positive regulator of synaptic plasticity and is required for several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory including recognition memory. The type I adenylyl cyclase, Adcy1 (also known as AC1), is crucial in memory formation because it couples Ca2+ to cyclic AMP increases in the hippocampus. Because Adcy1 is neurospecific, it is a potential pharmacological target for increasing cAMP specifically in the brain and for improving memory. We have generated transgenic mice that overexpress Adcy1 in the forebrain using the Camk2a (also known as alpha-CaMKII) promoter. These mice showed elevated long-term potentiation (LTP), increased memory for object recognition and slower rates of extinction for contextual memory. The increase in recognition memory and lower rates of contextual memory extinction may be due to enhanced extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which is elevated in mice that overexpress Adcy1.
Calorie-induced ER stress suppresses uroguanylin satiety signaling in diet-induced obesity
NUTRITION & DIABETES
Authors: Kim, G. W.; Lin, J. E.; Snook, A. E.; Aing, A. S.; Merlino, D. J.; Li, P.; Waldman, S. A.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The uroguanylin-GUCY2C gut-brain axis has emerged as one component regulating feeding, energy homeostasis, body mass and metabolism. Here, we explore a role for this axis in mechanisms underlying diet-induced obesity (DIO). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Intestinal uroguanylin expression and secretion, and hypothalamic GUCY2C expression and anorexigenic signaling, were quantified in mice on high-calorie diets for 14 weeks. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in suppressing uroguanylin in DIO was explored using tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that inhibits ER stress. The impact of consumed calories on uroguanylin expression was explored by dietary manipulation. The role of uroguanylin in mechanisms underlying obesity was examined using Camk2a-Cre-ERT2-Rosa-STOPloxP/loxP-Guca2b mice in which tamoxifen induces transgenic hormone expression in brain. RESULTS: DIO suppressed intestinal uroguanylin expression and eliminated its postprandial secretion into the circulation. DIO suppressed uroguanylin through ER stress, an effect mimicked by tunicamycin and blocked by TUDCA. Hormone suppression by DIO reflected consumed calories, rather than the pathophysiological milieu of obesity, as a diet high in calories from carbohydrates suppressed uroguanylin in lean mice, whereas calorie restriction restored uroguanylin in obese mice. However, hypothalamic GUCY2C, enriched in the arcuate nucleus, produced anorexigenic signals mediating satiety upon exogenous agonist administration, and DIO did not impair these responses. Uroguanylin replacement by transgenic expression in brain repaired the hormone insufficiency and reconstituted satiety responses opposing DIO and its associated comorbidities, including visceral adiposity, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. CONCLUSIONS: These studies reveal a novel pathophysiological mechanism contributing to obesity in which calorie-induced suppression of intestinal uroguanylin impairs hypothalamic mechanisms regulating food consumption through loss of anorexigenic endocrine signaling. The correlative therapeutic paradigm suggests that, in the context of hormone insufficiency with preservation of receptor sensitivity, obesity may be prevented or treated by GUCY2C hormone replacement.