Primary Dysmenorrhea in Relation to Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Status: A Systematic Review of Case-Control Studies
Authors: Szmidt, Maria Karolina; Granda, Dominika; Sicinska, Ewa; Kaluza, Joanna
Primary dysmenorrhea is defined as painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin in the absence of pelvic pathology and is the most common gynecological disorder among women of reproductive age. The aim of this study was to systematically review case-control studies that have investigated the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and inflammation markers among women with primary dysmenorrhea and controls. The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42020183104). By searching PubMed and Scopus databases as well as reference lists, six case-control studies with fifteen eligible markers (seven oxidative stress, seven antioxidant status, one inflammation) were included in this review. The quality of the included studies was assessed as medium or high. The systematic review included 175 women with primary dysmenorrhea and 161 controls. The results indicate an elevated level of oxidative stress, especially of lipid peroxidation among dysmenorrheal women. For the antioxidant status, limited evidence was found for a lower status among primary dysmenorrhea women, and only one study examined one inflammation marker (hs-CRP), which makes it impossible for such a conclusion. To establish whether oxidative stress, antioxidant status or inflammation participate in the pathophysiology of primary dysmenorrhea, high-quality studies with larger study groups and clear case definitions are needed.
Effect of combined exercise training on pentraxins and pro- inflammatory cytokines in people with multiple sclerosis as a function of disability status
Authors: Faramarzi, Mohammad; Banitalebi, Ebrahim; Raisi, Zahra; Samieyan, Masoumeh; Saberi, Zahra; Ghahfarrokhi, Majid Mardaniyan; Negaresh, Raoof; Motl, Robert W.
Objectives: There is some evidence for beneficial effects of exercise on cytokines in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unclear if such effects differ by disability status (i.e., stage of the disease). This study investigated the effect of combined exercise training on pentraxins and pro- inflammatory cytokines in people with multiple sclerosis as a function of disability status. Methods: This randomized control trial included 94 women with MS who were randomly assigned into exercise or control conditions with randomization stratified by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores of low (EDSS < 4.5), moderate (4.5 <= EDSS <= 6), or high (EDSS >= 6.5) disability. The exercise program lasted 12 weeks and comprised resistance, endurance, Pilates, balance and stretch exercises performed? days/week; the control condition involved a waitlist control. We measured resting levels of inflammatory factors, functional capacity, and lipid profile before and after the 12-week intervention period. Results: Combined exercise training significantly decreased hs-CRP (p = 0.029) and IL-6 (p = 0.001) and increased PTX-3 (p = 0.001) and IFN-y (p = 0.001), but there was no significant change in Fibrin D-dimer (FDD) (p = 0.876) compared with control, and those effects were independent of disability status. 1RM for lam pull-down, knee extension, and seated row and 6MWT (i.e., walking further) significantly increased and TUG performance significantly decreased (i.e., faster performance) (all, p < 0.001) after combined exercise compared with control, and this too was independent of disability status. Conclusions: Exercise may stimulate anti-inflammatory effects in MS, and this is generally not influenced by disability status. Exercise training may be an adjuvant for disease-modifying therapy among people with MS, and such effects might not be moderated by disability status.