Bovine Estrone Sulfate ELISA Kit (DEIA3400)

Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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plasma, serum, urine
Species Reactivity
Intended Use
The Bovine Estrone Sulfate ELISA Kit is an enzyme immunoassay system for quantitative determination of Estrone Sulfates levels in serum/plasma/urine samples of Bovine and related species.
Contents of Kit
1. Antibody-coated microtiter wells
2. Reference Standard (0, 1.0, 5.0, 10, 25, 50 ng/mL)
3. Enzyme Conjugate Reagent
4. TMB Color Reagent
5. 20X Wash Buffer
6. Stop solution (2N HCl)
Store the kit at 4-8°C upon receipt and when it is not in use.
Inter assay: 8.5%


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Quantification of steroid hormones in low volume plasma and tissue homogenates of fish using LC-MS/MS


Authors: Nouri, Mohammad-Zaman; Kroll, Kevin J.; Webb, Molly; Denslow, Nancy D.

Quantification of steroid hormones in fish is an important step for toxicology and endocrinology studies. Among the hormone analysis techniques, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has widely been used for measuring hormones in various biological samples. Despite all improvements in the technique, detection of several hormones in a low volume of serum or plasma is still challenging. We developed a robust method for simultaneous quantification of 14 steroid hormones including corticosterone, cortisol, 11-ketotestosterone, progesterone, testosterone, 17OH-progesterone, aldosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, estriol, ethinylestradiol, levonorgestrel and equilin from volumes as low as 10 mu L serum or plasma in a short run by LC-MS/MS. The lowest limit of detection in 10 mu L serum was 0.012 ng/mL measured for cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, 17OH-progesterone and estrone. Use of high (25 times more) serum volume improved detection limit of hormones by 2-40 times. The method was compared with the radioimmunoassay technique in which testosterone and 17 beta-estradiol were highly correlated with R-2 of 0.95 and 0.96, respectively. We validated the method by measuring four selected hormones, in low and high plasma volumes of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). In addition, we developed a method to quantify hormones in whole body fish homogenates of small fish and compared the values to plasma concentrations, using fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Calculated concentrations of the hormones in plasma were consistent with those in the homogenate and 11-ketotestosterone and 17 beta-estradiol were significantly different in males and females. The ability to measure hormones from whole body homogenates was further evaluated in two model small fish species, zebrafish (Danio rerio) and juvenile silverside (Menidia beryllina). These results suggest that whole tissue homogenate is a reliable alternative for hormone quantification when sufficient plasma is not available.

Mechanistic study on uptake and transport of pharmaceuticals in lettuce from water


Authors: Chuang, Ya-Hui; Liu, Cheng-Hua; Sallach, J. Brett; Hammerschmidt, Raymond; Zhang, Wei; Boyd, Stephen A.; Li, Hui

The dissemination of pharmaceuticals in agroecosystems originating from land application of animal manure/ sewage sludge and irrigation with treated wastewater in agricultural production has raised concern about the accumulation of pharmaceuticals in food products. The pathways of pharmaceutical entries via plant roots, transport to upper fractions, and the factors influencing these processes have yet been systematically elucidated, thus impeding the development of effective measures to mitigate pharmaceutical contamination in food crops. In this study, lettuce uptake of thirteen commonly used pharmaceuticals was investigated using a hydroponic experimental setting. Pharmaceutical sorption by lettuce roots was measured in order to evaluate the influence on pharmaceutical transport from roots to shoots. Small-sized pharmaceuticals e.g., caffeine and carbamazepine with molecular weight (MW)< 300 g mol(-1) and a low affinity to lettuce roots (sorption coefficient Kp < 0.05 L g(-1)) manifested substantial transport to shoots. Small-sized molecules lamotrigine and trimethoprim had a relatively strong affinity to lettuce roots (Kp > 12.0 L g(-1)) and demonstrated a reduced transport to shoots. Large-sized pharmaceuticals (e.g. MW> 400 g mol(-1)) including lincomycin, monensin sodium, and tylosin could be excluded from cell membranes, resulting in the predominant accumulation in lettuce roots. Large-sized oxytetracycline existed as zwitterionic species that could slowly enter lettuce roots; however, the relatively strong interaction with lettuce roots limits its transport to shoots. The mass balance analysis revealed that acetaminophen, beta-estradiol, carbadox, estrone and triclosan were readily metabolized in lettuce with > 90% loss during 144-h exposure period. A scheme was proposed to describe pharmaceutical uptake and transport in plant, which could reasonably elucidate many literature-reported results. Molecular size, reactivity and ionic speciation of pharmaceuticals, as well as plant physiology, collectively determine their uptake, transport and accumulation in plants.

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