Borrelia afzelii (strain PKo) (DAGA-560)

Borrelia afzelii (strain PKo), native protein

Alternative Names
Bacteria; Borrelia; Borrelia afzelii; B. afzelii; strain PKo
Batch dependent - please inquire should you have specific requirements
Saline containing 1 % n-octyl-β-Dglucopyranoside
-65°C or lower
Antigen Description
Borrelia afzelii is a species of Borrelia a bacterium that can infect various species of vertebrates and invertebrates.
Bacteria;Borrelia;Borrelia afzelii;B. afzelii;strain PKo


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Borrelia burgdorferi RST1 (OspC Type A) Genotype Is Associated with Greater Inflammation and More Severe Lyme Disease


Authors: Strle, Klemen; Jones, Kathryn L.; Drouin, Elise E.; Li, Xin; Steere, Allen C.

Evidence is emerging for differential pathogenicity among Borrelia burgdorferi genotypes in the United States. By using two linked genotyping systems, ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer type (RST) and outer surface protein C (OspC), we studied the inflammatory potential of B. burgdorferi genotypes in cells and patients with erythema migrans or Lyme arthritis. When macrophages were stimulated with 10 isolates of each RST1, RST2, or RST3 strain, RST1 (OspC type A)-stimulated cells expressed significantly higher levels of IL-6, IL-8, chemokine ligand (CCL) 3, CCL4, tumor necrosis factor, and IL-1 beta, factors associated with innate immune responses. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells, RST1 strains again stimulated significantly higher levels of these mediators. Moreover, compared with RST2, RST1 isolates induced significantly more interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-gamma, and CXCL10, which are needed for adaptive immune responses; however, OspC type I (RST3) approached RST1 (OspC type A) in stimulating these adaptive immune mediators. Similarly, serum samples from patients with erythema migrans who were infected with the RST1 genotype had significantly higher levels of almost all of these mediators, including exceptionally high levels of IFN-gamma-inducible chemokines, CCL2, CXCL9, and CXCL10; and this pronounced inflammatory response was associated with more symptomatic infection. Differences among genotypes were not as great in patients with Lyme arthritis, but those infected with RST1 strains more often had antibiotic-refractory arthritis. Thus, the B. burgdorferi RST1 (OspC type A) genotype, followed by the FtST3 (OspC type I) genotype, causes greater inflammation and more severe disease, establishing a link between spirochetal virulence and host Inflammation. (Am J Patbol 2011, 178:2726-2739; DOI: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.02.018)

Classification of ticks collected from horses in the Netherlands in 2008-2009 and identification of the (zoonotic) agents they contain


Authors: Butler, Catherine M.; van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M. Sloet; Stout, Tom A. E.; Jongejan, Frans; Werners, Arno H.; Houwers, Dirk J.

This study shows which hard tick species (Ixodidae) were found on domestic horses in the Netherlands in 2008-2009, and what potential pathogens these ticks carried. In the period 2008-2009, 130 ticks were collected, classified and screened for the presence of DNA from specific tick-borne pathogens using PCR-RLB. The numbers of ticks of the various species found were: 68 Ixodes ricinus, 58 Ixodes spp. (57 nymphs and 1 larva), 2 Dermacentor reticulatus and 2 Hyalomma marginatum. DNA from Borrelia valaisiana was detected in 49% of these ticks, B. afzelii in 22%, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. garinii in 3% and 2%, respectively. Rickettsia helvetica was detected in 9% of examined ticks, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.5%, Babesia venatorum in 4%, and B. caballi and Theileria equi in 1.5 and 3%, respectively. There were considerable regional differences suggesting focal distribution of these potential pathogens.

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