p53-mediated suppression of BiP triggers BIK-induced apoptosis during prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress
CELL DEATH AND DIFFERENTIATION
Authors: Lopez, Ignacio; Tournillon, Anne-Sophie; Martins, Rodrigo Prado; Karakostis, Konstantinos; Malbert-Colas, Laurence; Nylander, Karin; Fahraeus, Robin
Physiological and pathological conditions that affect the folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provoke ER stress and trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR aims to either restore the balance between newly synthesized and misfolded proteins or if the damage is severe, to trigger cell death. However, the molecular events underlying the switch between repair and cell death are not well understood. The ER-resident chaperone BiP governs the UPR by sensing misfolded proteins and thereby releasing and activating the three mediators of the UPR: PERK, IRE1 and ATF6. PERK promotes G2 cell cycle arrest and cellular repair by inducing the alternative translated p53 isoform p53.N40 (p53/47), which activates 14-3-3 sigma via suppression of p21(CDKN1A). Here we show that prolonged ER stress promotes apoptosis via a p53-dependent inhibition of BiP expression. This leads to the release of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only BIK from BiP and activation of apoptosis. Suppression of bip mRNA translation is mediated via the specific binding of p53 to the first 346-nt of the bip mRNA and via a p53 trans-suppression domain located within the first seven N-terminal amino acids of p53 Delta N40. This work shows how p53 targets BiP to promote apoptosis during severe ER stress and further illustrates how regulation of mRNA translation has a key role in p53-mediated regulation of gene expression during the UPR.
Osteopontin-stimulated apoptosis in cardiac myocytes involves oxidative stress and mitochondrial death pathway: role of a pro-apoptotic protein BIK
MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY
Authors: Dalal, Suman; Zha, Qinqin; Singh, Mahipal; Singh, Krishna
Increased osteopontin (OPN) expression in the heart, specifically in myocytes, associates with increased myocyte apoptosis and myocardial dysfunction. Recently, we provided evidence that OPN interacts with CD44 receptor, and induces myocyte apoptosis via the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial death pathways. Here we tested the hypothesis that OPN induces oxidative stress in myocytes and the heart via the involvement of mitochondria and NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX-4). Treatment of adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs) with OPN (20 nM) increased oxidative stress as analyzed by protein carbonylation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as analyzed by ROS detection kit and dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate staining. Pretreatment with NAC (antioxidant), apocynin (NOX inhibitor), MnTBAP (superoxide dismutase mimetic), and mitochondrial K-ATP channel blockers (glibenclamide and 5-hydroxydecanoate) decreased OPN-stimulated ROS production, cytosolic cytochrome c levels, and apoptosis. OPN increased NOX-4 expression, while decreasing SOD-2 expression. OPN decreased mitochondrial membrane potential as measured by JC-1 staining, and induced mitochondrial abnormalities including swelling and reorganization of cristae as observed using transmission electron microscopy. OPN increased expression of BIK, a pro-apoptotic protein involved in reorganization of mitochondrial cristae. Expression of dominant-negative BIK decreased OPN-stimulated apoptosis. In vivo, OPN expression in cardiac myocyte-specific manner associated with increased protein carbonylation, and expression of NOX-4 and BIK. Thus, OPN induces oxidative stress via the involvement of mitochondria and NOX-4. It may affect mitochondrial morphology and integrity, at least in part, via the involvement of BIK.