Treatment of Multi-Drug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Pathogenic Infections
JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY
Authors: Akram, Wardah Mohammad; Menezes, Godfred Antony; Abbas, Nida; Ahmad, Wasim; Ahmed, Ahmed Mohamed
The multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) infections in severely infected patients present numerous difficulties in terms of treatment failure where antibiotics cannot arrest such drug resistant bacteria. Based on the patient's medical history and updated microbiological epidemiology data, an effective empirical treatment remains critical for optimal results to safeguard human health. The aim of this manuscript is to review management of MDR-Gram negative pathogenic bacterial infections. Quick diagnosis and narrow antimicrobial spectrum require rapid and timely diagnosis and effective laboratories in accordance with antimicrobial stewardship (AS) principles. Worldwide, there is an increased emergence of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Recently, novel therapeutic options, such as meropenem/vaborbactam, ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, eravacycline and plazomicin became accessible to effectively counteract severe infections. Optimally using these delays the emergence of resistance to novel therapeutic agents. Further study is required, however, due to uncertainties in pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamics optimization of dosages and therapeutic duration in severely ill patients. The novel agents should be verified for (i) action on carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii; (ii) action on CRE of ss-lactam/ss-lactamase inhibitors dependence on type of carbapenemase; (iii) emergence of resistance to novel antibacterials and dismiss selective pressure promoting development of resistance. Alternative treatments should be approached alike phage therapy or antibacterial peptides. The choice of empirical therapy is complicated by antibiotic resistance and can be combated by accurate antibiotic and their combinations usage, which is critical to patient survival. Noteworthy are local epidemiology, effective teamwork and antibiotic stewardship to guarantee that medications are utilized properly to counter the resistance.
The Diversity of Lipopolysaccharide (O) and Capsular Polysaccharide (K) Antigens of InvasiveKlebsiella pneumoniaein a Multi-Country Collection
FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY
Authors: Choi, Myeongjin; Hegerle, Nicolas; Nkeze, Joseph; Sen, Shaichi; Jamindar, Sanchita; Nasrin, Shamima; Sen, Sunil; Permala-Booth, Jasnehta; Sinclair, James; Tapia, Milagritos D.; Johnson, J. Kristie; Mamadou, Sylla; Thaden, Joshua T.; Fowler, Vance G.; Aguilar, Ana; Teran, Enrique; Decre, Dominique; Morel, Florence; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Brauner, Annelie; Protonotariou, Efthymia; Christaki, Eirini; Shindo, Yuichiro; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Kwa, Andrea L.; Shakoor, Sadia; Singh-Moodley, Ashika; Perovic, Olga; Jacobs, Jan; Lunguya, Octavie; Simon, Raphael; Cross, Alan S.; Tennant, Sharon M.
Klebsiella pneumoniaeis a common cause of sepsis and is particularly associated with healthcare-associated infections. New strategies are needed to prevent or treat infections due to the emergence of multi-drug resistantK. pneumoniae. The goal of this study was to determine the diversity and distribution of O (lipopolysaccharide) and K (capsular polysaccharide) antigens on a large (>500) global collection ofK. pneumoniaestrains isolated from blood to inform vaccine development efforts. A total of 645K. pneumoniaeisolates were collected from the blood of patients in 13 countries during 2005-2017. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. O antigen types including the presence of modified O galactan types were determined by PCR. K types were determined by multiplex PCR andwzicapsular typing. Sequence types of isolates were determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) targeting seven housekeeping genes. Among 591 isolates tested for antimicrobial resistance, we observed that 19.3% of isolates were non-susceptible to carbapenems and 62.1% of isolates were multidrug resistant (from as low as 16% in Sweden to 94% in Pakistan). Among 645 isolates, four serotypes, O1, O2, O3, and O5, accounted for 90.1% ofK. pneumoniaestrains. Serotype O1 was associated with multidrug resistance. Fifty percent of 199 tested O1 and O2 strains weregmlABC-positive, indicating the presence of the modified polysaccharide subunit D-galactan III. The most common K type was K2 by both multiplex PCR andwzicapsular typing. Of 39 strains tested by MLST, 36 strains were assigned to 26 known sequence types of which ST14, ST25, and ST258 were the most common. Given the limited number of O antigen types, diverse K antigen types and the high multidrug resistance, we believe that an O antigen-based vaccine would offer an excellent prophylactic strategy to preventK. pneumoniaeinvasive infection.