Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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cultured cells
Species Reactivity
Intended Use
The BACH1 Cell-Based ELISA Kit is a convenient, lysate-free, high throughput and sensitive assay kit that can monitor BACH1 protein expression profile in cells. The kit can be used for measuring the relative amounts of BACH1 in cultured cells as well as screening for the effects that various treatments, inhibitors (ie. siRNA or chemicals), or activators have on BACH1.
Contents of Kit
1. 96-Well Cell Culture Clear-Bottom Microplate: 1 plate
2. 10x TBS: 24 mL (10x), Clear
3. Quenching Buffer: 24 mL (1x), Clear
4. Blocking Buffer: 50 mL (1x), Clear
5. 10x Wash Buffer: 50 mL (10x), Clear
6. 100x Anti-BACH1 Antibody (Rabbit Polyclonal): 60 μL (100x), Purple
7. 100x Anti-GAPDH Antibody (Mouse Monoclonal): 60 μL (100x), Green
8. HRP-Conjugated Anti-Rabbit IgG Antibody: 6 mL (1x), Glass
9. HRP-Conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Antibody: 6 mL (1x), Glass
10. Primary Antibody Diluent: 12 mL (1x), Clear
11. Ready-to-Use Substrate: 12 mL (1x), Brown
12. Stop Solution: 12 mL (1x), Clear
13. Crystal Violet Solution: 6 mL (1x), Glass
14. SDS Solution: 24 mL (1x), Clear
15. Adhesive Plate Seals: 4 seals
4°C/6 Months


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Distinct Nrf2 Signaling Mechanisms of Fumaric Acid Esters and Their Role in Neuroprotection against 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine-Induced Experimental Parkinson's-Like Disease


Authors: Ahuja, Manuj; Kaidery, Navneet Ammal; Yang, Lichuan; Calingasan, Noel; Smirnova, Natalya; Gaisin, Arsen; Gaisina, Irina N.; Gazaryan, Irina; Hushpulian, Dmitry M.; Kaddour-Djebbar, Ismail; Bollag, Wendy B.; Morgan, John C.; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Beal, M. Flint; Thomas, Bobby

A promising approach to neurotherapeutics involves activating the nuclear-factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element signaling, which regulates expression of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective genes. Tecfidera, a putative Nrf2 activator, is an oral formulation of dimethylfumarate (DMF) used to treat multiple sclerosis. We compared the effects of DMF and its bioactive metabolite monomethylfumarate (MMF) on Nrf2 signaling and their ability to block 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced experimental Parkinson's disease (PD). We show that in vitro DMF and MMF activate the Nrf2 pathway via S-alkylation of the Nrf2 inhibitor Keap1 and by causing nuclear exit of the Nrf2 repressor Bach1. Nrf2 activation by DMF but not MMF was associated with depletion of glutathione, decreased cell viability, and inhibition of mitochondrial oxygen consumption and glycolysis rates in a dose-dependent manner, where as MMF increased these activities in vitro. However, both DMF and MMF upregulated mitochondrial biogenesis in vitro in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Despite the in vitro differences, both DMF and MMF exerted similar neuroprotective effects and blocked MPTP neurotoxicity in wild-type but not in Nrf2 null mice. Our data suggest that DMF and MMF exhibit neuroprotective effects against MPTP neurotoxicity because of their distinct Nrf2-mediated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and mitochondrial functional/biogenetic effects, but MMF does so without depleting glutathione and inhibiting mitochondrial and glycolytic functions. Given that oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are all implicated in PD pathogenesis, our results provide preclinical evidence for the development of MMF rather than DMF as a novel PD therapeutic.

Bach1 deficiency reduces severity of osteoarthritis through upregulation of heme oxygenase-1


Authors: Takada, Tsuyoshi; Miyaki, Shigeru; Ishitobi, Hiroyuki; Hirai, Yuya; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Lotz, Martin K.; Ochi, Mitsuo

Introduction: BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) is a transcriptional repressor of Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which is cytoprotective through its antioxidant effects. The objective of this study was to define the role of Bach1 in cartilage homeostasis and osteoarthritis (OA) development using in vitro models and Bach1(-/-) mice. Methods: HO-1 expression in Bach1(-/-) mice was analyzed by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Knee joints from Bach1(-/-) and wild-type mice with age-related OA and surgically-induced OA were evaluated by OA scoring systems. Levels of autophagy proteins and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were determined by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between HO-1 and the protective effects for OA was determined in chondrocytes treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting HO-1 gene. Results: HO-1 expression decreased with aging in articular cartilages and menisci of mouse knees. Bach1(-/-) mice showed reduced severity of age-related OA and surgically-induced OA compared with wild-type mice. Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), autophagy marker, and SOD2 were increased in articular cartilage of Bach1(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) induced a significant increase in Adamts-5 in wild-type chondrocytes but not in Bach1(-/-) chondrocytes. The expression of SOD2 and the suppression of apoptosis in Bach1(-/-) chondrocytes were mediated by HO-1. Conclusions: Bach1 deficiency reduces the severity of OA-like changes. This may be due to maintenance of cartilage homeostasis and joint health by antioxidant effects through HO-1 and downregulation of extracellular matrix degrading enzymes. These results suggest that inactivation of Bach1 is a novel target and signaling pathway in OA prevention.

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