Phenolic profiling, biological activities and in silico studies of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana extracts
Authors: Ziani, Borhane E. C.; Carocho, Marcio; Abreu, Rui M. V.; Bachari, Khaldoun; Alves, Maria Jose; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Talhi, Oualid; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.
To evaluate the phenolic profile and biological activity of the Algerian Sahara plant Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana decoction and 80% ethanolic extracts were studied. Chromatographic profiling indicated the presence of 36 phenolic compounds, including gallic acid esterified derivatives, galloylquinic derivatives and flavan-3-ols galloyl derivatives. Both extracts showed significant cytotoxic activity and a potent anti-in-flammatory activity. They were effective against several multi-drug resistant bacteria, namely methicillin-re-sistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). To understand the possible mechanism of action of MRSA inhibition ac-tivity, an in silico docking analysis was done using a virtual library of the 36 determined phenolic compounds against penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a), a protein known to be involved in MRSA resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. A. tortilis extracts showed interesting biological activities and the phenolic compounds found could be an interesting starting point for the development of cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory drugs and especially anti-MRSA antibiotics.
Clinical and Microbiological Characterization of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Caused byAspergillus lentulusin China
FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY
Authors: Yu, Shu-Ying; Guo, Li-Na; Xiao, Meng; Zhou, Meng-Lan; Yuan, Ying; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Li; Sun, Tian-Shu; Ning, Ya-Ting; Jia, Pei-Yao; Kang, Wei; Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Sharon C-A; Zhao, Yanan; Xu, Ying-Chun
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) due toAspergillus lentulusis associated with high mortality. In this study, we investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of 6 fatal cases of proven or probable IA caused byA. lentulusin China. Underlying immunosuppression, prior antifungal exposure, and intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization were important risk factors for invasiveA. lentulusinfection. Phenotypic differences were observed forA. lentulusisolates including slower growth, reduced sporulation, and inability to grow at 48 degrees C, compared withAspergillus fumigatus complex. ITS sequencing was unable to distinguishA. lentulusfromA. fumigatus, but sequencing of thebenA,CaM, androd Aloci enabled reliable distinction of these closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the ITS region had little variation within theAspergillussection Fumigati while thebenAgene offered the highest intraspecific discrimination. Microsatellite typing results revealed that only loci on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, and 6b generated detectable amplicons for identification. AllA. lentulusisolates showedin vitroresistance to multiple antifungal drugs including amphotericin B (MIC range 4 to 8 mu g/ml), itraconazole (MIC 2 mu g/ml), voriconazole (MIC of 4-16 mu g/ml), and posaconazole (MIC of 0.5-1 mu g/ml). However, MECs for the echinocandin drugs ranged from 0.03-0.25, <= 0.008-0.015, and <= 0.015-0.03 mu g/ml for caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin, respectively.A. lentulusis an emerging fungal pathogen in China, causing fatal disease, and clinicians as well as laboratories should be alert to their increasing presence.