Detection of Drug Susceptible and Resistant Viridans Streptococci sp., Staphylococcus Aureus, Klebsiella Pneumoniae and E.coli in Complete Denture Patients and Visualisation using Scanning Electron Microscopy
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH
Authors: Andonissamy, Leoney; Karthigeyan, Suma; Ali, Seyed Asharaf
Introduction: The bacteria colonising the oral cavity and the dentures acquire drug resistance due to frequent usage of antibiotics systemically and application of mouth rinses and denture disinfectants locally. These multidrug resistant bacteria pose potential threat to the health of the patient as infections caused by them do not respond to conventional antibiotics. Aim: The present study aims at detecting the drug resistant bacteria in patients who wear complete dentures. Materials and Methods: The study is a descriptive study and follows laboratory invitro study design involving 30 complete denture patients. Swabs were collected from their oral cavity as well as complete denture surfaces. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed for the following bacteriae namely Viridans streptococci species, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and E.coli. Isolation of the bacteria were done by means of selective media and subjected to biochemical tests. The 16S rRNA sequencing was done to ascertain the microorganisms by which 20 isolates of each of the selective bacteria were obtained. The bacteria were classified as sensitive, intermediate sensitive and resistant based on antibiotic sensitivity tests. Those isolates which exhibited Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) were visualised using SEM. Results: Viridans streptococci sp. (40%) and Staphylococcus aureus (25%) isolates were resistant to Amoxiclavulinic acid and Methicilin, whereas Klebsiella pneumoniae (30%) and (30%) E.coli isolates were most resistant to Cefotaxime and Doxicilin. Conclusion: Drug resistant bacteria have been identified from complete dentures and oral cavity in the present study. Antibiotic sensitivity tests, 16S rRNA sequencing and SEM are vital investigative tools to detect and to visualise drug resistant bacteria. Cell density, Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) and capsule could be important factors for providing drug resistance.
Microparticles in the pathogenesis of TB: Novel perspectives for diagnostic and therapy management of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
Authors: Moreira, Josimar Dornelas; Silva, Henrique Rodrigues; Coelho Peixoto de Toledo, Vicente de Paulo; Pinto Dabes Guimaraes, Tania Mara
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, usually chronic and has a progressive clinical course. Despite the availability of effective chemotherapy, TB is a leading killer of young adults worldwide and the global multi-drug resistant TB is reaching epidemic proportions. Interrupt transmission through early detection and treatment of the patients is a main element of the drug-resistant TB control strategy. However, many drugable targets in pathogens are already inhibited by current antibiotics and there is not a biomarker that indicate normal or pathogenic biological processes, or pharmacological responses to therapeutic intervention. Studies directed at evaluate key elements of host response to infection may identify biomarkers with measurable characteristics that indicate pathogenic biological processes. Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are membrane-coated vesicles that represent subcellular elements and have been identified increasingly in a broad range of diseases and emerging as potential novel biomarker to pathological processes. In addition, MPs carry contents from their cells of origin as bioactive molecules as cytokines, enzymes, surface receptors, antigens and genetic information and may provide a means of communication between cells. Molecules-loaded MPs may interplay with the immune system and therefore can acts on inflammation, cell activation and migration. Therefore, MPs may be an important factor to immune process during Mtb infection, especially in pulmonary granulomas and influence the outcome of infection. Their characterization may facilitate an appropriate diagnosis, optimize pharmacological strategies and might be further explored as potential targets for future clinical interventions.