The phytoestrogen glabrene prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats through upregulation of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway
JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR TOXICOLOGY
Authors: Liu, Jun; Deng, Xinchang; Liang, Xiao; Li, Longying
This study systematically investigated the effects of phytoestrogen glabrene on postmenopausal osteoporosis in an ovariectomy (OVX) rat model. Glabrene administration (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) for 13 weeks can significantly slow down the body weight gain and slightly increase the uterus weight of OVX rats. The increased levels of U-Ca, U-P levels, urine DPD/creatinine, serum ALP, OCN, triglycerides, and total cholesterol induced by OVX were dramatically inhibited in rats, whereas no difference occurred for S-Ca and S-P in all groups. Furthermore, glabrene can enhance bone mineral density of the right femur, fourth-lumbar vertebra and tibia and improve biomechanical parameters, such as femoral neck loading force, three-point bending of the tibia, and vertebral compression in OVX rats. Moreover, glabrene greatly suppressed the expression of TRAP protein but increased OPG and BGP protein expression in tibia tissue of OVX rats. In addition, OVX-induced reduction of Lrp-5, beta-catenin, Runx2, and Osx protein expression was all restored by glabrene treatment. The present study indicated that glabrene might be a potential alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis via activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway.
The mules that are not mules-metrics, morphology, archaeogenomics and mtDNA d-loop diversity in equids from Roman Switzerland
JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE
Authors: Granado, Jose D.; Dill, Nadine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Fages, Antoine; Khan, Naveed; Mraz, Monica Schernig; Deschler-Erb, Sabine; Orlando, Ludovic; Schlumbaum, Angela
Mules (Equus asinus x Equus caballus) represent first-generation hybrids between a female horse (mare) and a male donkey (jack). They are generally considered to have first appeared north of the Alps with Roman influence, a time period in which written and iconographic sources support their key role for transport and traction, both in farming and the military. The archaeozoological evidence for mules is, however, contentious as faunal assem-blages are difficult to assign to either parental species or hybrids based on morphometric data alone. Here we leverage low-coverage DNA sequence data and Zonkey computational analyses to assess the occurrence of mules within Roman equid faunal assemblages in the alpine foreland. While morphological data previously assigned 17 remains to mules, successful DNA analysis of 12 remains revealed that 11 were in fact horses, one female and ten males. Eight mtDNA d-loop haplogroups were identified and genetic diversity within Roman equids corresponds to non-threatened modern local breeds. Two remains genetically identified as mules belonged to haplogroups F and I. Our results suggest that the importance of mules in the Roman archaeological record of the alpine foreland, and probably elsewhere, may have been previously over-estimated. Whether this is true for other regions of the Roman Empire needs to be evaluated. Further genomic testing for equid species and their hybrids and molecular sexing will improve our knowledge on this important issue.