Pomegranate extract specifically inhibits Clostridium difficile growth and toxin production without disturbing the beneficial bacteria in vitro
INFECTION AND DRUG RESISTANCE
Authors: Sukumar, Murugapillai Rathinam; Koenig, Brigitte
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the pomegranate juice against the growth and toxin production of multidrug-resistant Clostridium difficile hypervirulent strain NAP1/027/BI and also against the growth of beneficial bacteria to prevent or suppress C. difficile infection (CDI). Materials and methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were taken as parameters for the assessment of antimicrobial property of the pomegranate juice. Four different C. difficile hypervirulent strains NAP1/027/BI, Lactococcus lactis spp., Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium animalis were subjected to the broth dilution method to determine the MIC and MBC. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to determine clostridial toxin B (TcdB) production in the presence of pomegranate juice. Results: The MIC and MBC of pomegranate juice containing punicalagin were found to be 390 mu g/mL for all C. difficile hypervirulent strain NAP1/027/BI, and the growth of L. lactis spp., L. casei, and B. animalis was not inhibited. Pomegranate juice reduced TcdB production in C. difficile hypervirulent strain NAP1/027/BI. Conclusion: This study highlights the potential of pomegranate juice to reduce CDI without affecting the beneficial bacteria. Pomegranate juice may be a useful antimicrobial agent to prevent or suppress CDI, avoiding the use of antibiotics.
Development of vaccine for Clostridium difficile infection using membrane fraction of nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile
Authors: Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Iwaki, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Kato, Haru; Fukuda, Tadashi; Shibayama, Keigo
Although standard antibiotic therapy is performed for diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile, a high recurrence rate of C. difficile infection (CDI) remains a major problem. We previously showed that a membrane fraction of nontoxigenic C. difficile (ntCDMF) was effective as a vaccine antigen by in vitro experiments. In this study, we examined whether ntCDMF had an in vivo effect in animal challenge experiments. By intrarectal immunization with ntCDMF, the number of C. difficile cells in feces of mice was decreased approximately 99% compared to the control mice. In addition, survival rate of C. difficile-challenged hamsters was increased almost 30% by immunization with ntCDMF. These results showed that ntCDMF could be a practical vaccine candidate.