Genetic interactions in yeast between Ypt GTPases and Arf guanine nucleotide exchangers
Authors: Jones, S; Jedd, G; Kahn, RA; Franzusoff, A; Bartolini, F; Segev, N
Two families of GTPases, Arfs and Ypt/rabs, are key regulators of vesicular transport. While Arf proteins are implicated in vesicle budding from the donor compartment, Ypt/rab proteins are involved in the targeting of vesicles to the acceptor compartment. Recently, we have shown a role for Ypt31/32p in exit from the yeast trans-Golgi, suggesting a possible function for Ypt/rab proteins in vesicle budding as well. Here we report the identification of a new member of the Sec7-domain family, SYT1, as a high-copy suppressor of a ypt31/32 mutation. Several proteins that belong to the Sec7-domain family, including the yeast Gea1p, have recently been shown to stimulate nucleotide exchange by Arf GTPases. Nucleotide exchange by Arf GTPases, the switch from the GDP- to the GTP-bound form, is thought to be crucial for their function. Sec7p itself has an important role in the yeast secretory pathway. However, its mechanism of action is not yet understood. We show that all members of the Sec7-domain family exhibit distinct genetic interactions with the YPT genes. Biochemical assays demonstrate that, although the homology between the members of the Sec7-domain family is relatively low (20-35%) and limited to a small domain, they all can act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Arf proteins, but not for Ypt GTPases. The Sec7-domain of Sec7p is sufficient for this activity. Interestingly, the Sec7 domain activity is inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite that inhibits some of the Arf-GEFs, indicating that this domain is a target for BFA. These results demonstrate that the ability to act as Arf-GEFs is a general property of all Sec7-domain proteins in yeast. The genetic interactions observed between Xrf GEFs and Ypt GTPases suggest the existence of a Ypt-Arf GTPase cascade in the secretory pathway.
Relevance of partially structured states in the non-classical secretion of acidic fibroblast growth factor
Authors: Rajalingam, Dakshinamurthy; Graziani, Irene; Prudovsky, Igor; Yu, Chin; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy S.
Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) is a signal peptide-less protein that is secreted into the extracellular compartment as part of a multiprotein release complex, consisting of aFGF, S100A13 (a calcium binding protein), and a 40 kDa (p40) form of synaptotagmin (Syt1), a protein that participates in the docking of a variety of secretory vesicles. p40 Syt1, and specifically its C2A domain, is believed to play a major role in the non-classical secretion of the aFGF release complex mediated by the interaction of aFGF and p40 Syt1 with the phospholipids of the cell membrane inner leaflet. In the present study, we investigate the structural characteristics of aFGF and the C2A domain of p40 Syt1 under acidic conditions, using a variety of biophysical techniques including multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. Urea-induced equilibrium unfolding (at pH 3.4) of both aFGF and the C2A domain are non-cooperative and proceed with the accumulation of stable intermediate states. 1-Anilino-8-napthalene sulfonate (ANS) binding and size-exclusion chromatography results suggest that both aFGF and the C2A domain exist as partially Structured states under acidic conditions (pH 3.4). Limited trypsin digestion analysis and H-1-N-15 chemical shift perturbation data reveal that the flexibility of certain portions of the protein backbone is increased in the partially structured state(s) of aFGF. The residues that are perturbed in the partially structured state(s) in aFGF are mostly located at the N- and C-terminal ends of the protein. In marked contrast, most of the interactions stabilizing the native secondary structure are preserved in the partially structured state of the C2A domain. Isothermal titration calorimetry data indicate that the binding affinity between aFGF and the C2A domain is significantly enhanced at pH 3.4. In addition, both aFGF and the C2A domain exhibit much higher lipid binding affinity in their partially structured states. The translocation of the multiprotein FGF release complex across the membrane appears to be facilitated by the formation of partially structured states of aFGF and the C2A domain of p40 Syt1.