Xanthohumol targets the ERK1/2-Fra1 signaling axis to reduce cyclin D1 expression and inhibit non-small cell lung cancer
Authors: Gao, Feng; Li, Ming; Zhou, Li; Liu, Wenbin; Zuo, Huilan; Li, Wei
High expression of cyclin D1 has a crucial role in the maintenance of unlimited cell growth in human cancer cells. The present study indicated that cyclin D1 was overexpressed in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor tissues and cell lines. Knockout of cyclin D1 suppressed NSCLC cell growth, colony formation and in vivo tumor growth. Of note, the natural product xanthohumol (Xanth) inhibited NSCLC cells via the downregulation of cyclin D1. A further mechanistic study revealed that Xanth suppressed ERK1/2 signaling and reduced the protein levels of FOS-related antigen 1 (Fra1), which eventually inhibited the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 and decreased the mRNA level of cyclin D1. Furthermore, suppression of ERK1/2 impaired Fra1 phosphorylation and enhanced Xanth-induced Fra1 ubiquitination and degradation. In addition, the S265D mutation compromised Xanth-induced Fra1 degradation. Finally, the in vivo anti-tumor effect of Xanth was validated in a xenograft mouse model. In summary, the present results indicated that targeting ERK1/2-Fra1-cyclin D1 signaling is a promising anti-tumor strategy for NSCLC treatment.
Electroacupuncture intervention of visceral hypersensitivity is involved in PAR-2-activation and CGRP-release in the spinal cord
Authors: Shah, Manoj K.; Ding, Yi; Wan, Juan; Janyaro, Habibullah; Tahir, Adnan Hassan; Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Ding, Ming-Xing
Electroacupuncture (EA) relieves visceral hypersensitivity (VH) with underlying inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanism by which EA treats ileitis-induced VH is not clearly known. To assess the effects of EA on ileitis-induced VH and confirm whether EA attenuates VH through spinal PAR-2 activation and CGRP release, goats received an injection of 2,4,6-trinitro-benzenesulfonic-acid (TNBS) solution into the ileal wall. TNBS-injected goats were allocated into VH, Sham acupuncture (Sham-A) and EA groups, while goats treated with saline instead of TNBS solution were used as the control. Goats in EA group received EA at bilateral Hou-San-Li acupoints for 0.5 h at 7 days and thereafter repeated every 3 days for 6 times. Goats in the Sham-A group were inserted with needles for 0.5 h at the aforementioned acupoints without any hand manipulation and electric stimulation. Visceromotor responses to colorectal distension, an indicator of VH, were recorded by electromyography. The terminal ileum and thoracic spinal cord (T-11) were sampled for evaluating ileitis at days 7 and 22, and distribution and expression-levels of PAR-2, CGRP and c-Fos on day 22. TNBS-treated-goats exhibited apparent transmural-ileitis on day 7, microscopically low-grade ileitis on day 22 and VH at days 7-22. Goats of Sham-A, VH or EA group showed higher (P<0.01) VH at days 7-22 than the Control-goats. EA-treated goats exhibited lower (P<0.01) VH as compared with Sham-A or VH group. Immunoreactive-cells and expression-levels of spinal PAR-2, CGRP and c-Fos in the EA group were greater (P<0.01) than those in the Control group, but less (P<0.01) than those in Sham-A and VH groups on day 22. Downregulation of spinal PAR-2 and CGRP levels by EA attenuates the ileitis and resultant VH.