Hyalp1 in murine sperm function: Evidence for unique and overlapping functions with other reproductive hyaluronidases
JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY
Authors: Miller, Kimberly A.; Shao, Minghai; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A.
While Sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1) is the highly conserved mammalian sperm hyaluronidase (hyase), multiple hyases are present in the mouse testis. In this study we show that one of the murine hyases, Hyalp1, which is predominantly expressed in the testis in a 24-kd isoform has neutral enzymatic activity. On sperm, Hyalp1 is localized on the plasma membrane of the anterior head and was shown to have neutral hyase activity for an isoform of similar to 55-56 kd, contributing modestly to the overall neutral hyase activity. This activity is associated with in vitro cumulus penetration, since antibody inhibition of Hyalp1 significantly (P =.034) retarded the rate of penetration of wild-type (WT) sperm. Antibody-inhibited Spam1 null sperm were more severely retarded (P = 4.2 x 10(-19)), suggesting an up-regulation of Hyalp1 in these mice. A functionality test of the hyaluronic acid (HA) receptor domain identified in the N-terminus by in silico analysis revealed that sperm Hyalp1 is significantly (P =.006) involved in the progesterone-induced HA-enhanced acrosome reaction. Finally, developmental reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) shows that testicular transcripts of Hyalp1 are detected as early as 6 days postparturition, similar to transcripts for Spam1, suggesting that the gene might also play a role in the developing testes prior to spermiogenesis. Taken together, the findings reveal that Hyalp1 likely has a unique function in the adult testis, and redundant overlapping ones with Spam1 and may compensate for it in Spam1 null mice.
Acidic Hyaluronidase Activity Is Present in Mouse Sperm and Is Reduced in the Absence of SPAM1: Evidence for a Role for Hyaluronidase 3 in Mouse and Human Sperm
MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT
Authors: Reese, Kristen L.; Aravindan, Rolands G.; Griffiths, Genevieve S.; Shao, Minghai; Wang, Yipei; Galileo, Deni S.; Atmuri, Vasantha; Triggs-Raine, Barbara L.; Martin-Deleon, Patricia A.
The molecular mechanisms underlying sperm penetration of the physical barriers surrounding the oocyte have not been completely delineated. Although neutral-active or "reproductive" hyaluronidases (hyases), exemplified by Sperm Adhesion Molecule 1 (SPAM1), are thought to be responsible for hyaluronan digestion in the egg vestments and for sperm-zona binding, their roles in mouse sperm have been recently questioned. Here we report that acidic "somatic" Hyaluronidase 3 (HYAL3), a homolog of SPAM1 with 74.6% structural similarity, exists in two isoforms in human (similar to 47 and similar to 55 kDa) and mouse (similar to 44 and similar to 47 kDa) sperm, where it resides on the plasma membrane over the head and midpiece. Mouse isoforms are differentially distributed in the soluble (SAP), membrane (MBP), and acrosome-reacted (AR) fraction where they are most abundant. Comparisons of zymography of Hyal3 null and wild-type (WT) AR and MBP fractions show significant HYAL3 activity at pH 3 and 4, and less at pH 7. At pH 4, a second acid-active hyase band at similar to 57 kDa is present in the AR fraction. HYAL3 activity was confirmed using immunoprecipitated HYAL3 and spectrophotometry. In total proteins, hyase activity was higher at pH 6 than at 4, where Spam1 nulls had significantly (P < 0.01) diminished activity implicating an acidic optima for murine SPAM1. Although fully fertile, Hyal3 null sperm showed delayed cumulus penetration and reduced acrosomal exocytosis. HYAL3 is expressed in epididymal tissue/fluid, from where it is acquired by caudal mouse sperm in vitro. Our results reveal concerted activity of both neutral- and acid-active hyaluronidases in sperm.