Habitual Combined Exercise Protects against Age-Associated Decline in Vascular Function and Lipid Profiles in Elderly Postmenopausal Women
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH
Authors: Pekas, Elizabeth J.; Shin, John; Son, Won-Mok; Headid, Ronald J., III; Park, Song-Young
Postmenopausal status is associated with increased risks for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study investigated differences in vascular function, lipids, body composition, and physical fitness in elderly postmenopausal women active in combined resistance and aerobic exercise (CRAE) training for 1 year versus a sedentary cohort of similar-in-age counterparts. Elderly postmenopausal women performing habitual CRAE training for 1 year (age similar to 75 year; CRAE, n = 57) and elderly sedentary postmenopausal women (age similar to 78 year; SED, n = 44) were recruited. Arterial stiffness (brachial-to-ankle pulse-wave velocity, baPWV), blood pressure, blood lipids, anthropometrics, 2-min walking distance, and muscular strength were assessed for both groups. There were significant differences for baPWV, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein, and body fat percentage, which were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in CRAE vs. SED, and both 2 min walking distance and muscular strength were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in CRAE vs. SED. These results indicate that elderly postmenopausal women participating in habitual CRAE training may have better protection against risks for CVD and have better physical fitness compared to SED counterparts.
High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Ketogenic Diet-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Type 2 Diabetic Mice by Ameliorating TGF-beta 1/Smad Signaling
DIABETES METABOLIC SYNDROME AND OBESITY-TARGETS AND THERAPY
Authors: Zhang, Qiang; Shen, Fei; Shen, WenQing; Xia, Jie; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Zhe; Sun, Yi; Qian, Min; Ding, ShuZhe
Objective: Ketogenic diet (KD) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have preclinical benefits for type 2 diabetes (Db). However, the health risks of long-term KD use in diabetes should be ascertained and prevented. We hypothesized that KD-induced liver fibrosis in type 2 diabetic mice could be ameliorated by HIIT. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic mice were divided into high-fat diet (HFD) control (Db+HFD+Sed), KD control (Db+KD+Sed), HFD coupled with HIIT (Db+HFD+HIIT), and KD coupled with HIIT (Db+KD+HIIT) groups (n=6, per group). Control mice were kept in sedentary (Sed), while HIIT group mice underwent 40-minute high-intensity interval training three alternate days per week. After 8-week intervention, the indicators of body weight and insulin resistance, oxidative stress markers, hepatic fibrosis, genetic and protein expression of related pathways were tested. Results: We found that fasting blood glucose level was reduced in the Db+HFD+HIIT, Db+KD+Sed, and Db+KD+HIIT groups. Insulin sensitivity was increased in diabetic mice of these groups, whereas ROS levels were decreased in mice that underwent HIIT. The immunohistochemical staining of liver, serum index, and hepatic parameters of diabetic mice in the KD group revealed liver fibrosis, which was significantly attenuated by HIIT. Besides, these effects of HIIT were the outcome of hepatic stellate cell's inactivation, reduced protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, and the inhibition of TGF-beta 1/Smad signaling. Conclusion: KD had a profound fibrotic effect on the liver of type 2 diabetic mice, whereas HIIT ameliorated this effect. KD did not show any apparent benefit as far as glucose tolerance and homeostasis were concerned. Concisely, our results demonstrated that KD should be coupled with HIIT for the prevention and preclinical mitigation of type 2 diabetes.