Anti-Rituximab ELISA Kit (DEIABL219)

Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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Size
96T
Sample
Serum, plasma
Species Reactivity
Human
Intended Use
Qualitative Antibodies to Rituximab ELISA has been especially developed for the qualitative analysis of antibodies to rituximab in serum and plasma samples.
Storage
The kit is shipped at ambient temperature (10-30°C) and should be stored at 2-8°C for long term storage. Keep away from heat or direct sunlight. The strips of microtiter plate are stable up to the expiry date of the kit in the broken, but tightly closed bag when stored at 2-8°C.
Precision
Intra-assay and inter-assay CVs <30%.
General Description
Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 antigen, which is expressed on the surface of pre-B and mature B-lymphocytes. After binding to CD20, rituximab mediates B-cell lysis (or breakdown). The possible mechanisms of cell lysis include complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC).
Rituximab belongs to the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) sub-class, consisting of a murine variable region (Fab region) and a human constant region (Fc region). The Fab region has variable sections that define a specific target antigen, allowing the antibody to attract and secure its exclusive antigen, specifically the binding of rituximab (IgG1) to CD20 on pre-B and mature B lymphocytes. The Fc region is the tail end of the antibody that communicates with cell surface receptors to activate the immune system, in this case, a sequence of events leading to the depletion of circulating B lymphocytes by complement-dependent cell lysis, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, as well as apoptosis. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the clinical practice of measuring specific drugs at designated intervals to maintain a constant concentration in a patient's bloodstream, thereby optimizing individual dosage regimens. The indications for drug monitoring include efficacy, compliance, drug-drug interactions, toxicity avoidance, and therapy cessation monitoring. Additionally, TDM can help to identify problems with medication compliance among noncompliant patient cases.
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the clinical practice of measuring specific drugs at designated intervals to maintain a constant concentration in a patient's bloodstream, thereby optimizing individual dosage regimens. The indications for drug monitoring include efficacy, compliance, drug-drug interactions, toxicity avoidance, and therapy cessation monitoring. Additionally, TDM can help to identify problems with medication compliance among noncompliant patient cases.
Biologic medicinal products (biologics) have transformed treatment landscapes worldwide for patients with haematological or solid malignancies with the 21st century. Today, as data exclusivity periods of first wave biologics approach expiration/have expired, several biosimilar products (i.e., biologics that are considered to be similar in terms of quality, safety and efficacy to an approved 'reference' biologic) are being developed or have already been approved for human use.
Like all biologics, biosimilars are structurally complex proteins that are typically manufactured using genetically engineered animal, bacterial or plant cell culture systems. As a consequence of this molecular complexity and the proprietary nature of the manufacturing process, which will inevitably result in the use of different host cell lines and expression systems as well as related differences in manufacturing conditions, it is not possible to manufacture exact copies of a reference biologic.
When administered to patients, all therapeutic proteins have the potential to induce an unwanted immune response (i.e., to stimulate the formation of antidrug antibodies [ADAs]). The impact of immune responses can range from no apparent effect to changes in pharmacokinetics, loss of effect and serious adverse events. Furthermore, the immunogenicity profile of a biologic can be significantly altered by even small differences in its manufacturing process that are accompanied by a change in product attributes, as well as differences in dosing schedules, administration routes or patient populations.

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References


Nozaki, T; Ishida, H; et al. The Correlation Between Results of ABO-Incompatible Living Kidney Transplantation and Anti-ABO Blood Type Antibody Titers Under Our Current Immunosuppression Including Rituximab.. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION 14:90-91(2014).
Hirai, T; Ishida, H; et al. Changes in ABO-Blood Type Antibody Titers After Single-Dose Rituximab Administration. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION 14:449-449(2014).

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