Mutations within the transcription factor PROP1 are rare in a cohort of patients with sporadic combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD)
Authors: Turton, JPG; Mehta, A; Raza, J; Woods, KS; Tiulpakov, A; Cassar, J; Chong, K; Thomas, PQ; Eunice, M; Ammini, AC; Bouloux, PM; Starzyk, J; Hindmarsh, PC; Dattani, MT
Objective Mutations within the pituitary-specific paired-like homeobox gene PROP1 have been described in 50-100% of patients with familial combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). We screened a cohort of sporadic (n = 189) and familial (n = 44) patients with hypopituitarism (153 CPHD and 80 isolated hormone deficiencies) for mutations within the coding sequence of PROP1. Design and patients Patients with congenital hypopituitarism were recruited from the London Centre for Paediatric Endocrinology as well as several national and international centres. The pituitary phenotype ranged from isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) to panhypopituitarism. Clinical data, including endocrine and neuro-radiological studies were obtained from patient records, and DNA was collected and screened for mutations within PROP1 using PCR and single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Positive results on SSCP were sequenced directly. Results The prevalence of PROP1 mutations in unselected sporadic cases of hypopituitarism was lower (1.1%) than in familial cases (29.5%). PROP1 mutations can be associated with a highly variable phenotype, and both pituitary hypoplasia and pituitary hyperplasia. We describe the waxing and waning of a pituitary mass over 20 months in association with a PROP1 mutation that is predicted to lead to complete loss of function. Additionally, we have identified a possible founder mutation in CPHD patients from the Indian subcontinent. Conclusions PROP1 mutations are rare in sporadic cases of CPHD, although the prevalence rises if there is a positive family history or if the patients are carefully selected with respect to the endocrine and neuroradiological phenotype. There is considerable phenotypic variability in families with the same mutation, indicating the role of other genetic or environmental factors on phenotypic expression. Finally, the pituitary enlargement that is observed in patients with PROP1 mutations can wax and wane in size before eventual involution.
Impact of the underlying etiology of growth hormone deficiency on serum IGF-I SDS levels during GH treatment in children
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY
Authors: Leger, Juliane; Mohamed, Damir; Dos Santos, Sophie; Ben Azoun, Myriam; Zenaty, Delphine; Simon, Dominique; Paulsen, Anne; Martinerie, Laetitia; Chevenne, Didier; Alberti, Corinne; Carel, Jean-Claude; Guilmin-Crepon, Sophie
Context: Regular monitoring of serum IGF-I levels during growth hormone (GH) therapy has been recommended, for assessing treatment compliance and safety. Objective: To investigate serum IGF-I SDS levels during GH treatment in children with GH deficiency, and to identify potential determinants of these levels. Design, patients and methods: This observational cohort study included all patients (n = 308) with childhood-onset non-acquired or acquired GH deficiency (GHD) included in the database of a single academic pediatric care center over a period of 10 years for whom at least one serum IGF-I SDS determination during GH treatment was available. These determinations had to have been carried out centrally, with the same immunoradiometric assay. Serum IGF-I SDS levels were determined as a function of sex, age and pubertal stage, according to our published normative data. Results: Over a median of 4.0 (2-5.8) years of GH treatment per patient, 995 serum IGF-I SDS determinations were recorded. In addition to BMI SDS, height SDS and GH dose (P < 0.01), etiological group (P < 0.01) had a significant effect on serum IGF-I SDS levels, with patients suffering from acquired GHD having higher serum IGF-I SDS levels than those with non-acquired GHD, whereas sex, age, pubertal stage, treatment duration, hormonal status (isolated GHD (IGHD) vs multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD)) and initial severity of GHD, had no effect. Conclusions: These original findings have important clinical implications for long-term management and highlight the need for careful and appropriate monitoring of serum IGF-I SDS and GH dose, particularly in patients with acquired GHD, to prevent the unnecessary impact of potential comorbid conditions.