mRNA expression of growth hormone (GH) and Insulin during the initial ontogeny of tropical gar larvae (Atractosteus tropicus)
Authors: Zamora-Solis, Zuleyma; Daniel Jimenez-Martinez, Luis; Alfonso Frias-Quintana, Carlos; Alfonso Alvarez-Gonzalez, Carlos; Tovar-Ramirez, Dariel; Guerrero-Zarate, Rocio
The tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus) is one of the most important commercial species in south-eastern Mexico, being studied in reproductive, physiological, nutrition and cultivation aspects; however, the aspects related to the endocrine system are unknown, mainly the expression of hormones during their larval development. In this study, we investigated the expression of the insulin gene (INS) and growth hormone (GH), during the embryonic period (egg), eleutheroembryon (3 DAH) up to 25 DAH using RTq-PCR, normalized with the elongation factor gene EF1-alpha. The INS phylogenetic inference showed an amino acid identity of 97%, while GH 99% against the sequence ofLepisosteus oculatus, indicating that these species are related and come from a common ancestor. The gene expression of the INS showed four peaks at 3, 7, 11 and 19 DAH, corresponding to changes in diet (Artemia nauplii) and artificial foods. GH expression was detected from the egg, increasing from day 15 to 25 DDE, concluding thatA. tropicuslarvae showed early and high expressions of these hormones, indicating a direct relationship with changes in metabolism of the species, increasing its function according to the nutrients present in the food and the increase in growth during the ontogeny ofA. tropicus.
A protocol for acute stroke unit care during the COVID-19 pandemic
JOURNAL OF STROKE & CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES
Authors: De Silva, Deidre Anne; Tan, Il Fan; Thilarajah, Shamala
Background: Acute stroke unit (ASU) care is proven to reduce mortality and morbidity. During the COVID-19 crisis, established physical units and care practices within existing physical units are likely to be disrupted. Stroke patients with possible suspected COVID-19 infection may be isolated in other wards outside the ASU. Methods: Our hospital developed an adapted ASU protocol which includes key elements for stroke unit care, can be utilized by staff not familiar with stroke care with minimal training and can be implemented in various settings. Results: The adapted protocol has 3 categories of Acute monitoring (neurological observations, blood pressure and input-output monitoring, investigations and specific post-reperfusion issues), Stroke complications (focusing on 5 common complications) and Unified team (describing daily check-ins, patient education, communication, discharge planning and post-discharge support). Conclusions: Details are presented in the article in a format that it can be adopted by other centers facing similar issues in order to ensure ASU care is not compromised.