cAMP-PKA signal transduction specificity inSaccharomyces cerevisiae
Authors: Portela, P.; Rossi, Silvia
Living cells have developed a set of complex signaling responses, which allow them to withstand different environmental challenges. Signaling pathways enable the cell to monitor external and internal states and to articulate the appropriate physiological responses. Cellular signal transmission requires the dynamic formation of spatiotemporal controlled molecular interactions. One of the most important signaling circuits inSaccharomyces cerevisiaeis the one controlled by cAMP-Protein Kinase A (PKA). In budding yeast, extracellular glucose and a plethora of signals related with growth and stress conditions regulate the intracellular cAMP levels that modulate PKA activity which in turn regulates a broad range of cellular processes. The cAMP-PKA signaling output requires a controlled specificity of the PKA responses. In this review we discuss the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the establishment of the specificity in the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway inS.cerevisiae.
The ins and outs of host-microsporidia interactions during invasion, proliferation and exit
Authors: Tamim El Jarkass, Hala; Reinke, Aaron W.
Microsporidia are a large group of fungal-related obligate intracellular parasites. They are responsible for infections in humans as well as in agriculturally and environmentally important animals. Although microsporidia are abundant in nature, many of the molecular mechanisms employed during infection have remained enigmatic. In this review, we highlight recent work showing how microsporidia invade, proliferate and exit from host cells. During invasion, microsporidia use spore wall and polar tube proteins to interact with host receptors and adhere to the host cell surface. In turn, the host has multiple defence mechanisms to prevent and eliminate these infections. Microsporidia encode numerous transporters and steal host nutrients to facilitate proliferation within host cells. They also encode many secreted proteins which may modulate host metabolism and inhibit host cell defence mechanisms. Spores exit the host in a non-lytic manner that is dependent on host actin and endocytic recycling proteins. Together, this work provides a fuller picture of the mechanisms that these fascinating organisms use to infect their hosts.