The Influence of Leaping Frequency on Secondary Bone in Cercopithecid Primates
ANATOMICAL RECORD-ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
Authors: Lad, Susan E.; Pampush, James D.; Mcgraw, W. Scott; Daegling, David J.
Bone remodeling is at least partially mediated by the mechanical environment created by an animal's behavior. Here, we test the hypothesis that bone remodeling is primarily induced by high magnitude loads, likely encountered during leaping/bounding behaviors. Osteon population density (OPD), osteon cross-sectional area (On.Ar), and relative osteonal area (%HAV) were measured from femoral and humeral midshaft thin sections of four cercopithecids (N = 5 per species) from Tai Forest, Cote d'Ivoire: Colobus polykomos, Piliocolobus badius, Cercopithecus diana, and Cercocebus atys. All species are generalized quadrupeds but vary in leaping frequency and overall activity budget. Differences between taxa with high (C. polykomos and P. badius) and low leaping frequency (C. diana and C. atys) were assessed via a phylogenetically informed generalized linear mixed model using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Femoral OPD and %HAV are greater in the high frequency leapers than in low frequency leapers, suggesting that frequent high magnitude loads engender remodeling, however, there is no similar pattern in the humerus, which presumably also experiences high magnitude loads during leaping. Additionally, OPD and %HAV are greater in the humerus than the femur, despite load magnitude being presumably higher in the femur. These results provide conflicting support for hypotheses about load magnitude and load frequency as they relate to bone remodeling activity. Future work is proposed to parse out the respective effects of load magnitude and frequency on bone remodeling. Anat Rec, 302:1116-1126, 2019. (c) 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Visual Simultaneous Detection of Hepatitis A and B Viruses Based on a Multifunctional Molecularly Imprinted Fluorescence Sensor
Authors: Luo, Lianghui; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Chunyan; Cai, Changqun
Simultaneous detection of large viruses has been a great obstacle in the field of molecular imprinting. In this work, for the first time, a multifunctional molecularly imprinted sensor for single or simultaneous determination of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is provided. Visual detection was realized due to the color of green and red quantum dots that varied with the concentration of the target substance. The combination of hydrophilic monomers and metal chelation reduced the nonspecific binding and enhanced the specificity of adsorption. As a result, satisfactory selectivity and sensitivity were obtained for the detection of the two viruses, with imprinting factors of 3.70 and 3.35 for HAV and HBV, and limits of detection of 3.4 and 5.3 pmol/L, respectively, that were achieved within 20 min. The excellent recoveries during simultaneous detection and single detection modes indicate the prominent ability of the proposed sensor to detect HAV and HBV in human serum and the potential ability to simultaneously detect multiple viruses in real applications.