Anti-Glucagon ELISA Kit (DEIABL210)

Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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Size
2x96T
Sample
serum, plasma
Species Reactivity
human
Intended Use
The Anti-Glucagon ELISA kit is a dual detection sandwich assay for the determination of antibodies against glucagon in serum and plasma samples. The assay is designed to detect human IgGs against glucagon. The assay can be modified to detect other isotypes of immunoglobulins.
Storage
Store the unopened kit at 2-8°C.
Precision
Intra-assay precision (CV%): 7% - 9%. Inter-assay precision (CV%): 6%.
Detection Range
The drug tolerance is up to 100 ng/mL.
Detection Limit
23-47 ng/mL

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References


Effects of active farnesoid X receptor on GLUTag enteroendocrine L cells

MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY

Authors: Niss, Kristoffer; Jakobsson, Magnus E.; Westergaard, David; Belling, Kirstine G.; Olsen, Jesper, V; Brunak, Soren

Activated transcription factor (TF) farnesoid X receptor (FXR) represses glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in enteroendocrine L cells. This, in turn, reduces insulin secretion, which is triggered when beta cells bind GLP-1. Preventing FXR activation could boost GLP-1 production and insulin secretion. Yet, FXR's broader role in L cell biology still lacks understanding. Here, we show that FXR is a multifaceted TF in L cells using proteomics and gene expression data generated on GLUTag L cells. Most striking, 252 proteins regulated upon glucose stimulation have their abundances neutralized upon FXR activation. Mitochondrial repression or glucose import block are likely mechanisms of this. Further, FXR physically targets bile acid metabolism proteins, growth factors and other TFs, regulates ChREBP, while extensive text-mining found 30 FXR-regulated proteins to be well-known in L cell biology. Taken together, this outlines FXR as a powerful TF, where GLP-1 secretion block is just one of many

Adipocyte-specific deletion of Tcf7l2 induces dysregulated lipid metabolism and impairs glucose tolerance in mice

DIABETOLOGIA

Authors: Nguyen-Tu, Marie-Sophie; Martinez-Sanchez, Aida; Leclerc, Isabelle; Rutter, Guy A.; da Silva Xavier, Gabriela

Aims/hypothesis Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is a downstream effector of the Wnt/beta-catenin signalling pathway implicated in type 2 diabetes risk through genome-wide association studies. Although its expression is critical for adipocyte development, the potential roles of changes in adipose tissue TCF7L2 levels in diabetes risk are poorly defined. Here, we investigated whether forced changes inTcf7l2expression in adipocytes affect whole body glucose or lipid metabolism and crosstalk between disease-relevant tissues. Methods Tcf7l2was selectively ablated in mature adipocytes in C57BL/6J mice usingCrerecombinase underAdipoqpromoter control to recombineTcf7l2alleles floxed at exon 1 (referred to as aTCF7L2 mice). aTCF7L2 mice were fed normal chow or a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Glucose and insulin sensitivity, as well as beta cell function, were assessed in vivo and in vitro. Levels of circulating NEFA, selected hormones and adipokines were measured using standard assays. Results Reduced TCF7L2 expression in adipocytes altered glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in male but not in female mice. Thus, on a normal chow diet, male heterozygote knockout mice (aTCF7L2het) exhibited impaired glucose tolerance at 16 weeks (p = 0.03) and increased fat mass (1.4 +/- 0.1-fold,p = 0.007) but no changes in insulin secretion. In contrast, male homozygote knockout (aTCF7L2hom) mice displayed normal body weight but impaired oral glucose tolerance at 16 weeks (p = 0.0001). These changes were mechanistically associated with impaired in vitro glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (decreased 0.5 +/- 0.1-fold vs control mice,p = 0.02) and decreased levels of the incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (0.6 +/- 0.1-fold and 0.4 +/- 0.1-fold vs control mice,p = 0.04 andp < 0.0001, respectively). Circulating levels of plasma NEFA and fatty acid binding protein 4 were increased by 1.3 +/- 0.1-fold and 1.8 +/- 0.3-fold vs control mice (p = 0.03 andp = 0.05, respectively). Following exposure to a high-fat diet for 12 weeks, male aTCF7L2hom mice exhibited reduced in vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (0.5 +/- 0.1-fold vs control mice,p = 0.02). Conclusions/interpretation Loss ofTcf7l2gene expression selectively in adipocytes leads to a sexually dimorphic phenotype, with impairments not only in adipocytes, but also in pancreatic islet and enteroendocrine cells in male mice only. Our findings suggest novel roles for adipokines and incretins in the effects of diabetes-associated variants inTCF7L2, and further illuminate the roles ofTCF7L2in glucose homeostasis and diabetes risk. Graphical abstract

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