Involvement of CaMKII in regulating the release of diplotene-arrested mouse oocytes by pAkt1 (Ser473)
Authors: Liu, Lingling; Li, Hanwen; Labbe, Ben; Wang, Yang; Mao, Shitao; Cao, Yu; Zhao, Mingjing; Liu, Shuo; Yu, Hang; Deng, Xin
Calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) had been reported to play a role in the process of fertilization. However, the role of CaMKII in the release of diplotene-arrested oocytes is poorly understood. In this study, we explored the potential effect of CaMKII on Akt1 and the relationship among CaMKII, Akt1 and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) during the meiotic resumption of mouse oocytes. We found that inhibition of CaMKII aggravated diplotene arrest. We detected the expression and distribution of pCaMKII (Thr286), pAkt1 (Ser473), Cdc25B and pCdc2 (Tyr15) when oocytes were treated with KN-93, SH-6, LY294002 or PIP3, respectively. Our data showed that down-regulated CaMKII by KN-93 decreased the levels of pAkt1 (Ser473) and rearranged the distribution of pAkt1 (Ser473). Meanwhile, down-regulated pAkt1 (Ser473) by SH-6 also decreased the levels of pCaMKII (Thr286), Cdc25B and pCdc2 (Tyr15) significantly and rearranged the distributions of pCaMKII (Thr286). Furthermore, our data showed that exogenous PIP3 up-regulated GVBD rates significantly and increased the levels of pCaMKII (Thr286) and pAkt1 (Ser473). On the contrary, down-regulation of PIP3 by LY294002 decreased GVBD rates and the levels of pCaMKII (Thr286) and pAkt1 (Ser473), respectively. Our results showed that Akt1 and CaMKII regulated each other, and PIP3 may be involved in these regulations during the release of mouse oocytes from diplotene arrest.
The TRPV4-AKT axis promotes oral squamous cell carcinoma cell proliferation via CaMKII activation
Authors: Fujii, Shinsuke; Tajiri, Yudai; Hasegawa, Kana; Matsumoto, Shinji; Yoshimoto, Reiko U.; Wada, Hiroko; Kishida, Shosei; Kido, Mizuho A.; Yoshikawa, Hiromasa; Ozeki, Satoru; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu
This paper shows that TRPV4, a Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channel, responds to extracellular environments to regulate oral squamous cell carcinoma cellular growth through CaMKII/AKT activity in vitro and in vivo. Most human malignant tumor cells arise from epithelial tissues, which show distinctive characteristics, such as polarization, cell-to-cell contact between neighboring cells, and anchoring to a basement membrane. When tumor cells invaginate into the stroma, the cells are exposed to extracellular environments, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). Increased ECM stiffness has been reported to promote cellular biological activities, such as excessive cellular growth and enhanced migration capability. Therefore, tumorous ECM stiffness is not only an important clinical tumor feature but also plays a pivotal role in tumor cell behavior. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channel, has been reported to be mechano-sensitive and to regulate tumorigenesis, but the underlying molecular mechanism in tumorigenesis remains unclear. The function of TRPV4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is also unknown. The current study was conducted to investigate whether or not TRPV4 might be involved in OSCC tumorigenesis. TRPV4 mRNA levels were elevated in OSCC cell lines compared with normal oral epithelial cells, and its expression was required for TRPV4 agonist-dependent Ca2+ entry. TRPV4-depleted tumor cells exhibited decreased proliferation capabilities in three-dimensional culture but not in a low-attachment plastic dish. A xenograft tumor model demonstrated that TRPV4 expression was involved in cancer cell proliferation in vivo. Furthermore, loss-of-function experiments using siRNA or an inhibitor revealed that the TRPV4 expression was required for CaMKII-mediated AKT activation. Immunohistochemical analyses of tissue specimens obtained from 36 OSCC patients showed that TRPV4 was weakly observed in non-tumor regions but was strongly expressed in tumor lesions at high frequencies where phosphorylated AKT expression was frequently detected. These results suggest that the TRPV4/CaMKII/AKT axis, which might be activated by extracellular environments, promotes OSCC tumor cell growth.