Molecular evolution of Cide family proteins: Novel domain formation in early vertebrates and the subsequent divergence
BMC EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
Authors: Wu, Congyang; Zhang, Yinxin; Sun, Zhirong; Li, Peng
Background: Cide family proteins including Cidea, Cideb and Cidec/Fsp27, contain an N-terminal CIDE-N domain that shares sequence similarity to the N-terminal CAD domain (NCD) of DNA fragmentation factors Dffa/Dff45/ICAD and Dffb/Dff40/CAD, and a unique C-terminal CIDE-C domain. We have previously shown that Cide proteins are newly emerged regulators closely associated with the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and liver steatosis. They modulate many metabolic processes such as lipolysis, thermogenesis and TAG storage in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT), as well as fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis in the liver. Results: To understand the evolutionary process of Cide proteins and provide insight into the role of Cide proteins as potential metabolic regulators in various species, we searched various databases and performed comparative genomic analysis to study the sequence conservation, genomic structure, and phylogenetic tree of the CIDE-N and CIDE-C domains of Cide proteins. As a result, we identified signature sequences for the N-terminal region of Dffa, Dffb and Cide proteins and CIDE-C domain of Cide proteins, and observed that sequences homologous to CIDE-N domain displays a wide phylogenetic distribution in species ranging from lower organisms such as hydra (Hydra vulgaris) and sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis) to mammals, whereas the CIDE-C domain exists only in vertebrates. Further analysis of their genomic structures showed that although evolution of the ancestral CIDE-N domain had undergone different intron insertions to various positions in the domain among invertebrates, the genomic structure of Cide family in vertebrates is stable with conserved intron phase. Conclusion: Based on our analysis, we speculate that in early vertebrates CIDE-N domain was evolved from the duplication of NCD of Dffa. The CIDE-N domain somehow acquired the CIDE-C domain that was formed around the same time, subsequently generating the Cide protein. Subsequent duplication and evolution have led to the formation of different Cide family proteins that play unique roles in the control of metabolic pathways in different tissues.
Functional analysis of FSP27 protein regions for lipid droplet localization, caspase-dependent apoptosis, and dimerization with CIDEA
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM
Authors: Liu, Kun; Zhou, Shengli; Kim, Ji-Young; Tillison, Kristin; Majors, David; Rearick, David; Lee, Jun Ho; Fernandez-Boyanapalli, Ruby F.; Barricklow, Katherine; Houston, M. Sue; Smas, Cynthia M.
Liu K, Zhou S, Kim J, Tillison K, Majors D, Rearick D, Lee JH, Fernandez-Boyanapalli RF, Barricklow K, Houston MS, Smas CM. Functional analysis of FSP27 protein regions for lipid droplet localization, caspase-dependent apoptosis, and dimerization with CIDEA. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297: E1395-E1413, 2009. First published October 20, 2009; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00188.2009.-The adipocyte-specific protein FSP27, also known as CIDEC, is one of three cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector (CIDE) proteins. The first known function for CIDEs was promotion of apoptosis upon ectopic expression in mammalian cells. Recent studies in endogenous settings demonstrated key roles for CIDEs in energy metabolism. FSP27 is a lipid droplet-associated protein whose heterologous expression enhances formation of enlarged lipid droplets and is required for unilocular lipid droplets typical of white adipocytes in vivo. Here, we delineate relationships between apoptotic function and lipid droplet localization of FSP27. We demonstrate that ectopic expression of FSP27 induces enlarged lipid droplets in multiple human cell lines, which is indicative that its mechanism involves ubiquitously present, rather than adipocyte-specific, cellular machinery. Furthermore, promotion of lipid droplet formation in HeLa cells via culture in exogenous oleic acid offsets FSP27-mediated apoptosis. Using transient cotransfections and analysis of lipid droplets in HeLa cells stably expressing FSP27, we show that FSP27 does not protect lipid droplets from action of ATGL lipase. Domain mapping with eGFP-FSP27 deletion constructs indicates that lipid droplet localization of FSP27 requires amino acids 174-192 of its CIDE C domain. The apoptotic mechanism of FSP27, which we show involves caspase-9 and mitochondrial cytochrome c, also requires this 19-amino acid region. Interaction assays determine the FSP27 CIDE C domain complexes with CIDEA, and Western blot reveals that FSP27 protein levels are reduced by coexpression of CIDEA. Overall, our findings demonstrate the function of the FSP27 CIDE C domain and/or regions thereof for apoptosis, lipid droplet localization, and CIDEA interaction.