Differential Use of Chondroitin Sulfate to Regulate Hyaluronan Binding by Receptor CD44 in Inflammatory and Interleukin 4-activated Macrophages
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
Authors: Ruffell, Brian; Poon, Grace F. T.; Lee, Sally S. M.; Brown, Kelly L.; Tjew, Sie-Lung; Cooper, Jessie; Johnson, Pauline
CD44 is a cell surface receptor for the extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan and is involved in processes ranging from leukocyte recruitment to wound healing. In the immune system, the binding of hyaluronan to CD44 is tightly regulated, and exposure of human peripheral blood monocytes to inflammatory stimuli increases CD44 expression and induces hyaluronan binding. Here we sought to understand how mouse macrophages regulate hyaluronan binding upon inflammatory and anti-inflammatory stimuli. Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha or lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma (LPS/IFN gamma) induced hyaluronan binding by up-regulating CD44 and down-regulating chondroitin sulfation on CD44. Hyaluronan binding was induced to a lesser extent in interleukin-4 (IL-4)-activated macrophages despite increased CD44 expression, and this was attributable to increased chondroitin sulfation on CD44, as treatment with beta-D-xyloside to prevent chondroitin sulfate addition significantly enhanced hyaluronan binding. These changes in the chondroitin sulfation of CD44 were associated with changes in mRNA expression of two chondroitin sulfotransferases, CHST3 and CHST7, which were decreased in LPS/IFN gamma-stimulated macrophages and increased in IL-4-stimulated macrophages. Thus, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory stimuli differentially regulate the chondroitin sulfation of CD44, which is a dynamic physiological regulator of hyaluronan binding by CD44 in mouse macrophages.
Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5 transactivation of TGFBR1 stimulates the mRNA expression of proteoglycan synthesizing genes XYLT1 and CHST3
BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-MOLECULAR CELL RESEARCH
Authors: Zhou, Ying; Little, Peter J.; Cao, Yingnan; Ta, Hang T.; Kamato, Danielle
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) via transactivation dependent signalling pathways contributes to a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological responses. In the vasculature, hyperelongation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains on proteoglycans leads to lipid retention in the intima resulting in the early pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Therefore, we investigated and defined the contribution of transactivation dependent signalling in LPA mediated GAG chain hyperelongation in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). LPA acting via the LPA receptor 5 (LPAR5) transactivates the TGFBR1 to stimulate the mRNA expression of GAG initiation and elongation genes xylosyltransferase-1 (XYLT1) and chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase-1 (CHST3), respectively. We found that LPA stimulates ROS and Akt signalling in VSMCs, however they are not associated in LPAR5 transactivation of the TGFBR1. We observed that LPA via ROCK dependent pathways transactivates the TGFBR1 to stimulate genes associated with GAG chain elongation. We demonstrate that GPCR transactivation of the TGFBR1 occurs via a universal biochemical mechanism and the identified effectors represent potential therapeutic targets to inhibit pathophysiological effects of GPCR transactivation of the TGFBR1.