Identification of genes underlying the enhancement of immunity by a formula of lentinan, pachymaran and tremelia polysaccharides in immunosuppressive mice
Authors: Luo, Xia; Huang, Shaowei; Luo, Shuang; Liao, Haifeng; Wang, Yuanyuan; Deng, Xiangliang; Ma, Fangli; Ma, Chung Wah; Zhou, Lian
The efficacy of polysaccharides is widespread, especially in immune regulation. However, the genetic basis of the changes in polysaccharides regulating immunity is unclear. To obtain genome-wide insights into transcriptome changes and regulatory networks, we designed a polysaccharide formula, comprising lentinan, pachymaran and tremelia, to increase the availability of their optimized active sites. In this case, we focused on a model of immunosuppression to investigate genes by digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiling in T and B cells. These genes were further validated by qRT-PCR and Western blot experiments. Consequently, polysaccharide formula treatment helped to recover the expression of immune-related genes, including CADM1, CCR2, IGLL1, LIGP1, and FCGR3, FCGR2 in B cells, as well as S100A8, S100A9, ChIL3, MMP8 and IFITM3 in T cells. These results suggest that treatment with polysaccharides improves the immunity of immunosuppressive mice by regulating genes associated with T and B cell functions.
Experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis: a new bicongenic rat model
DISEASE MODELS & MECHANISMS
Authors: D'Souza, Zelpha; McAdoo, Stephen P.; Smith, Jennifer; Pusey, Charles D.; Cook, H. Terence; Behmoaras, Jacques; Aitman, Timothy J.
Crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) is a major cause of human kidney failure, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats are uniquely susceptible to CRGN following injection of nephrotoxic serum, whereas Lewis (LEW) rats are resistant. Our previous genetic studies of nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN), a form of CRGN induced by nephrotoxic serum, identified Fcgr3 and Jund as WKY genes underlying the two strongest quantitative trait loci for NTN phenotypes: Crgn1 and Crgn2, respectively. We also showed that introgression of WKY Crgn1 or Crgn2 individually into a LEW background did not lead to the formation of glomerular crescents. We have now generated a bicongenic strain, LEW.WCrgn1,2, in which WKY Crgn1 and Crgn2 are both introgressed into the LEW genetic background. These rats show development of NTN phenotypes, including glomerular crescents. Furthermore, we characterised macrophage function and glomerular cytokine profiles in this new strain. Additionally, we show that LEW.WCrgn1,2 rats are resistant to the development of glomerular crescents that is usually induced following immunisation with recombinant rat alpha 3(IV)NC1, the specific Goodpasture autoantigen located in the glomerular basement membrane against which the immune response is directed in experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Our results show that the new bicongenic strain responds differently to two distinct experimental triggers of CRGN. This is the first time that CRGN has been induced on a normally resistant rat genetic background and identifies the LEW.WCrgn1,2 strain as a new, potentially valuable model of macrophage-dependent glomerulonephritis.